China: An Exploration Into The Judicial Standard Of SEPs (In Chinese)

Last Updated: 29 March 2016
Article by AnJie Law Firm

自深圳市中级人民法院2011年审理华为技术有限公司(下称华为公司)诉美国交互数字集团(下称IDC)垄断案以来,标准必要专利这一概念逐渐被业界知晓。近年来,涉及标准必要专利的案件逐渐增多,例如中兴通讯股份有限公司(下称中兴通讯公司)诉IDC垄断案、华为公司与中兴通讯公司互诉标准必要专利侵权案、高通公司因滥用标准必要专利被调查案等等。

由于涉及标准必要专利的案件在全球范围内也具有前沿性,业界对于涉及标准必要专利的一些问题还未能形成比较一致的意见,还有待于进一步研究。鉴于此,最高人民法院深圳大学知识产权司法保护理论研究基地与深圳大学法学院于12月12日联合举办了"标准必要专利研讨会",就标准必要专利的准确定义、FRAND(公平、合理、无歧视)原则的法律属性、适用反垄断法规制标准必要专利纠纷案件时如何界定相关市场等热点问题进行了专题研讨。

重要判决"引爆"热点

2011年,作为对IDC在美国起诉其专利侵权的反击,华为公司在深圳中院对IDC提起了垄断侵权诉讼,请求法院基于国际通行的FRAND原则,判令IDC立即停止在与华为公司就无线通信领域专利许可谈判过程中存在的垄断侵权行为,包括过高定价、歧视性定价、搭售、附加不合理交易条件和拒绝交易等行为,并赔偿经济损失2000万元。

在这起案件中,深圳中院经审理认定IDC构成针对华为公司的垄断侵权,判令其立即停止侵权并赔偿华为公司经济损失2000万元。

在这起案件中,深圳中院的法官们对涉及标准必要专利的侵权纠纷中的相关市场、市场支配地位、搭售等概念都进行了详尽的解释。

该案判决后,不仅在国内引起巨大反响,在国际上也极受关注。因为在当时,此种类型的案件在世界范围内都较为少见。

"标准"定义引发争论

作为一种全新类型的知识产权纠纷,涉及标准必要专利的案件在审理中还存在一些问题,在业界尚未达成共识,值得探究。比如,对于标准必要专利当中的"标准",业界就有不同的理解。

中国人民大学知识产权学院副院长郭禾在此次研讨会上表示,目前的现状是,标准分为很多种,除国家强制性标准以外,还有多种企业自发执行的其他类型标准。而且,我国的各类标准在制定时几乎没有将专利纳入。

广东省高级人民法院知识产权庭副庭长邱永清认为,凡是国家强制性标准所纳入的专利,应该被认定为标准必要专利,其他类型的标准所涉及的专利该如何认定值得进一步研究。

对于"标准"究竟指的是单纯的技术标准,还是商业标准,或者是技术兼顾商业的标准,业界也存在相当不统一的观点。参加此次研讨会的多数专家都认为该"标准"不仅仅指的是技术标准,有时候还要兼顾商业因素。

西南政法大学副教授马海生则认为,如果在认定"标准"的时候考虑商业因素,则会有很大的不确定性。所以,该"标准"应该指的是技术标准。

华为公司知识产权部标准与知识产权策略总监王斌表示,从已经发生的涉及标准必要专利的案件来看,没有一起是从商业角度考虑某件专利是否为标准必要专利的,都是从技术本身来考虑的,因为在现实的案例中还不存在在商业上不可避免的专利。

FRAND原则如何适用

标准必要专利权人在加入标准组织时都会被要求作出遵守FRAND原则的承诺,这是否意味着专利权人与标准使用人之间自然建立了合同关系呢?

深圳中院知识产权庭法官陈文全认为,FRAND许可承诺不具备合同成立的构成要件。合同成立更多时候是要有要约和承诺,作为实施的合同,费率或者许可费是最重要的条款,不管是固定的许可费还是不固定的许可费,如果这一条款都没有敲定就认为这个合同成立了,可能不够慎重。

华东政法大学知识产权学院副院长黄武双则认为,标准必要专利权人在加入该标准的时候作出了FRAND承诺,而标准必要专利使用人在使用该专利的时候意味着其已经表达愿意为使用支付费用的意思,这种关系一经确立,虽然要支付多少费用还没有确定,但合同关系是成立的。

而对于标准必要专利侵权纠纷中,是否可以向被诉侵权人发布禁令的问题,同济大学教授刘晓海认为,标准必要专利权人作出FRAND承诺,并不意味着其放弃得到禁令救济的权利。广东高院知识产权庭副庭长张学军则倾向于不发布禁令,因为标准必要专利权人在这种纠纷中,损失并不是无法弥补的,专利权人只是希望得到自身认为合理的许可费。邱永清认为,在这种诉讼中,应以不发布禁令为原则,以发布禁令为例外。中国政法大学教授冯晓青认为,应该有条件地发布禁令。

对于适用反垄断法规制标准必要专利纠纷案件时,如何界定相关市场的问题,深圳大学法学院副院长、深圳中院知识产权庭副庭长祝建军认为,专利一旦被纳入到标准中,就具有强制性、不可替代性,在特定的许可市场中,当然具有市场支配地位。清华大学副教授崔国斌对这一观点表示支持,他认为,每一件标准必要专利对应一个相关市场,这是必然的结论。最高人民法院知识产权庭法官朱理则认为,并不能认为每一个标准必要专利都是一个相关市场。(知识产权报 记者 祝文明)

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