China: The Antitrust Enforcement Announcement Of SAIC: China Life Insurance, Taikang Life Insurance And Other Insurance Companies Concluded Monopoly Agreements (In Chinese)

Last Updated: 22 March 2016
Article by AnJie Law Firm

经国家工商行政管理总局授权,江西省工商行政管理局于2013年6月对中国人寿、泰康人寿等保险公司江西分公司涉嫌达成、实施划分销售市场的垄断协议案件行为进行立案调查,于2015年12月28日对涉案当事人作出行政处罚决定,现予公告。

附: 江西省工商行政管理局行政处罚决定书

赣工商 公 处字〔 2015 〕1号

当事人:中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司,营业场所:江西省南昌市西湖区中山路526号,负责人:许建民,企业类型:其他股份有限公司分公司(上市),经营范围:人寿保险、健康保险、意外伤害保险等各类人身保险业务;人身保险的再保险业务;国家法律法规允许的或国务院批准的资金运用业务;各类人身保险服务、咨询和代理业务;国家保险监督管理部门批准的其他业务(以上项目国家有专项规定的除外)。注册号:360000020001524,1996年9月28日经江西省工商局核准登记成立。

2013年3月22日,本局接到国家工商总局批转的反映江西建筑工程团体意外伤害保险市场存在垄断协议行为的举报。经核查,举报反映的情况基本属实。2013年6月3日,国家工商行政管理总局授权本局对中国人寿、泰康人寿江西分公司等保险公司有关涉嫌垄断行为立案调查。2013年8月9日,本局对参与垄断协议的中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司立案调查。

经本局查明:2009年12月,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司、泰康人寿江西分公司与人保产险、平安财险等保险公司江西省分公司签订了《江西省建筑工程意外伤害保险共保协议》、《南昌市建筑工程人员团体意外伤害保险共保协议书》,将江西省工程建筑意外伤害保险市场划分为除南昌市所辖县、区外的九江、景德镇、萍乡、新余、鹰潭、赣州、宜春、上饶、吉安、抚州10个设区市行政管辖区域和南昌市所辖县、区两个地域,并对工程建筑意外伤害保险市场份额进行了划分:其中,江西省(除南昌市所辖县、区外的九江、景德镇、萍乡、新余、鹰潭、赣州、宜春、上饶、吉安、抚州10个设区市行政管辖区域)建筑工程意外伤害保险由中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司为主承保人,保费收入中,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司占40%,新华人寿、平安财险等9家保险公司按1%--20%不同比例划分,预留8%份额由中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司代管;南昌市所辖县、区建筑工程意外伤害保险由泰康人寿江西分公司为主承保人,市场份额中,泰康人寿江西分公司占31.5%,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司占2%,新华人寿、平安财险等保险公司按0.5%--16%不同比例划分,预留8%份额由泰康人寿江西分公司代管。协议同时约定:主承保人不得跨区域承保,除中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司、泰康人寿江西分公司出具建工险承保凭证、收取保费外,其他各参与协议的保险公司不得通过任何方式单独承保该业务。以上两份协议分别经十家参与保险公司签字盖章认可,自2010年1月1日起生效,有效期三年。协议达成后,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司等保险公司按照协议在其经营活动中实施。2010年,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司通过协议获取建筑意外伤害保险份额1803.17万元;2011年,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司获取建筑意外伤害保险份额2691.13万元;2012年,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司获取建筑意外伤害保险份额2978.6万元。

2012年12月,在上述两份协议即将到期的情况下,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司、泰康人寿江西分公司又分别与人保财险、阳光财险等16家保险公司江西省分公司签订《江西省建筑工程意外伤害保险共保协议》、《南昌市建筑工程团体意外伤害保险共保协议》,继续将江西省工程建筑意外伤害保险市场划分为除南昌市所辖县、区外的九江、景德镇、萍乡、新余、鹰潭、赣州、宜春、上饶、吉安、抚州10个设区市行政管辖区域和南昌市所辖县、区两个地域,并再次对江西省工程建筑意外伤害保险市场份额进行了划分:江西省(除南昌市所辖县、区外的九江、景德镇、萍乡、新余、鹰潭、赣州、宜春、上饶、吉安、抚州10个设区市行政管辖区域)建筑工程意外伤害保险由中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司为主承保人,保费收入,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司占40%,中银保险、人保财险、平安财险等16家保险公司按0.5%--20%不同比例划分,预留4.5%份额暂时分配给加入协议三年、且份额较低的成员;南昌市所辖县、区建筑工程意外伤害保险由泰康人寿江西分公司为主承保人,建工险份额中,泰康人寿江西省分公司占31.5%,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司占3%(其中1%为临时享有),人民健康、平安产险等15家保险公司按0.5%--16%不同比例划分,预留5%份额作为新成员加入的预备份额,在未分配前暂时分配给加入协议三年的成员。新的协议达成后,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司等保险公司继续按照协议在其经营活动中实施。2013年,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司通过协议获取建筑意外伤害保险份额4183.94万元;2014年上半年,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司获取建筑意外伤害保险份额2314.74万元。

此外,中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司等保险公司分公司于2009年12月、2012年12月达成、实施的《江西省建筑工程意外伤害保险共保协议》、《南昌市建筑工程团体意外伤害保险共保协议》中还对保险代理公司、代理手续费比例、保险费率等做了约定,并规定了履约基本保证金和份额保证金制度,对违约公司处以的罚款,从履约保证金中扣除。

以上事实,有以下证据证实:

1、中国保监会江西监管局、江西省建设厅《关于进一步规范和加强建筑意外伤害保险工作的意见》(赣保监发[2007]13号),证明有经营资质的保险公司均可经营建筑意外伤害保险业务,建筑施工企业可以自主选择保险公司投保建筑意外伤害保险。

2、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司企业信息查询材料,证明中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司在江西省工商局登记注册信息。

3、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司(注册号:360000020001524)营业执照复印件、经营保险业务许可证(机构编码:L10012VJX)复印件,证明中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司经营资格。

4、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司委托书、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司邵义光居民身份证复印件,证明中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司委托邵义光全权处理案件。

5、中国人寿保险股份有限公司邵义光询问笔录3份(2014年3月19日8时20分至8时50分第1次、2014年3月19日8时55分至9时20分第2次、2014年3月19日9时25分至9时45分第3次),证明中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司参与2009、2012年江西、南昌建工险共保协议,其为江西建工险共保协议主承保人及保费收入、支出情况。

6、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司提供的江西建筑工程团体意外伤害保险共保协议复印件2份(2009、2012),证明江西建工险共保协议事实。

7、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司关于江西建工险共保情况说明。

8、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司提供的2010、2011、2012、2013年江西建工险共保业务保费收入情况,证明江西建工险共保保费收入。

9、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司提供的缴纳税收说明。

10、中国保险监督管理委员会江西监管局提供的建意险保费收入情况统计表。

对于以上查明的事实和证据,本局认为:建筑工程意外伤害保险属于保险公司提供的一种商业性保险服务,投保人有权选择任何一家有资质的保险公司投保建筑意外伤害保险。任何具有竞争关系的经营者,都不得以任何理由共同达成、实施划分销售市场的垄断协议。

1、中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司与涉案的其他保险公司分公司属于《中华人民共和国反垄断法》(以下简称《反垄断法》)所指的具有竞争关系的经营者

《反垄断法》第十二条第一款规定:"本法所称经营者,是指从事商品生产、经营或提供服务的自然人、法人和其他组织。"涉案的中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司等保险公司分公司均经有关部门批准,可以提供建筑工程意外伤害商业保险服务,处于同一地域范围内,在产品特性方面具有明显的可替代性,有组织机构和财产,提供商业保险服务,以盈利为目的,均具有独立的对外意思表示能力和承担相应法律责任的能力,不属于同一经济组织,不存在关联关系,具有直接的竞争关系,是《反垄断法》所指的具有竞争关系的经营者。

2、将建筑工程意外伤害保险进行地域、份额划分是"分割销售市场"

《反垄断法》第十二条第二款规定:"本法所称相关市场,是指经营者在一定时期内就特定商品或者服务(以下统称商品)进行竞争的商品范围和地域范围。"本案涉及的江西省建筑工程团体意外伤害保险项目,是本应由有资质的保险公司相互之间以开展公平竞争所争取的服务项目,本案中具有竞争关系的涉案各保险分公司通过签订协议对建筑工程意外伤害保险的保险地域、保费份额的划分,是《反垄断法》所指的划分销售市场行为。

3、涉案保险公司分公司参与达成、实施了垄断协议

本案涉案的中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司等保险公司分公司合意、协同达成的《江西省建筑工程团体意外伤害保险共保协议》、《南昌市建筑工程人员团体意外伤害保险共保协议》属于《反垄断法》禁止的垄断协议。经本局在调查中获取的证据表明,上述垄断协议达成后,随即执行,并在日常经营活动中贯彻执行了协议约定。

4、涉案保险公司分公司的行为排除、限制了市场竞争

本案涉案保险公司分公司,通过划分销售地域、市场份额,使市场份额相对固化,直接排除了彼此之间的竞争,也弱化了经营者为争取消费者而不断提升质量和服务的动力,削弱了各公司通过吸引优质代理人拓展市场的竞争,阻碍了各公司在保险产品、价格和服务质量方面的竞争,降低了商业保险及其代理市场的经济效率,导致投保人只能被动接受两家主承保人的保险服务,享受不到竞争带来的个性化特色服务。综上所述,涉案保险公司分公司行为违反了《反垄断法》第十三条第一款第(三)项"禁止具有竞争关系的经营者达成分割销售市场的垄断协议",《工商行政管理机关禁止垄断协议行为的规定》(国家工商行政管理总局令第53号)第五条"禁止具有竞争关系的经营者就分割销售市场或者原材料采购市场达成下列垄断协议"(一)"划分商品销售地域、销售对象或者销售商品的种类、数量"的规定,应当依法予以处罚。

在本案作出行政处罚前,2015年6月30日,本局向当事人送达了赣工商公听字〔2013〕1号行政处罚听证告知书,告知当事人拟作出行政处罚的事实、理由、依据,并告知当事人依法享有的权利。当事人未要求听证,但提出如下申辩意见:开展建筑工程意外伤害保险共保,成立共保体,便于统一、规范保险售后服务,更好地保障投保人和被保险人利益,规范市场秩序,共同承担经营风险,也存在不足和需要改进处。在工商局启动反垄断调查后,其一方面主动配合调查,如实提供材料,一方面也认真进行了反思。其公司长期致力江西经济发展,公司当下面临经营困难和压力,请求参照全国类似情况比例从轻处罚以及对所有的共保体适用同一的处罚标准。

对于当事人提出的申辩意见,本局认为:随着保险市场不断开放,同业竞争日趋激烈。各公司作为独立经营者,应当衡量自身经营成本和产品销售价格。在自由公平竞争的市场上,服务质量差、管理水平低的经营者,少赢利、不赢利甚至亏损,都是市场竞争的必然结果。本案涉案各保险公司分公司通过达成垄断协议的方式,人为排除、限制市场竞争,降低经济效率,保护低效率企业,导致广大消费者利益受损。达成、实施上述垄断协议,最终必然妨害各公司提升竞争力,阻碍财产保险行业持续健康发展。中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司是垄断协议的首席承保人,为协议各方的代表,负责处理保险公司与投保人或被保险人及保险中介机构之间的有关业务事项,垄断协议涉及的建筑工程意外伤害保险承保和赔付信息统计查询、调整保险费率等也主要由其负责日常管理、制定,在垄断协议的达成、实施过程中实际起到了组织、召集等作用,应对垄断协议的达成、实施承担较重的责任。经营者在反垄断调查中,配合调查、如实提供证据是《反垄断法》第四十二条规定的法定义务。因此,对其提出对所有的共保体成员适用同一的处罚标准的请求,本局不予采纳。鉴于当事人中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司在反垄断调查中,能够配合执法,如实提供证据,停止违法行为,本局在法定幅度内依法适度处罚。

之后,2015年8月18日,本局向当事人送达了赣工商公听字〔2013〕1-1号行政处罚听证告知书,告知当事人拟作出行政处罚的事实、理由、依据,并告知当事人依法享有的权利。当事人在规定的时间内,未提出听证申请,也未提出陈述、申辩意见。

依据《中华人民共和国反垄断法》第四十六条第一款、《工商行政管理机关禁止垄断协议行为的规定》(国家工商行政管理总局令第53号)第十条第一款之规定,本局决定:

1、责令停止达成、实施分割销售市场的垄断协议行为;

2、按中国人寿保险股份有限公司江西省分公司2013年共保销售额度(4183.94万元)的5%处以罚款,计209.197万元。

当事人应自收到处罚决定书之日起十五日内到农业银行南昌市象南广场支行(户名:江西省工商行政管理局;开户行:农行南昌市象南广场支行;帐号:315201040001152)缴纳罚款。逾期不缴纳罚款,本局将根据《中华人民共和国行政处罚法》第五十一条第一款第(一)项、第(三)项的规定,每日按罚款数额的百分之三加处罚款,并申请人民法院强制执行。

当事人如不服本处罚决定,可自收到本处罚决定书之日起六十日内向国家工商行政管理总局或江西省人民政府申请行政复议,也可以在收到处罚决定书之日起六个月内向南昌市东湖区人民法院提起行政诉讼。复议、诉讼期间,本处罚决定不停止执行。

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