China: Recent proposed amendments to China’s Patent Law: Will it help to improve the enforceability of patents in China?

Last Updated: 5 November 2014
Article by Alex Zhang and Xuelin Ma

I. INTRODUCTION

By 2015, the Chinese government plans to double the number of patent applications filed with the State Intellectual Property Office ("SIPO"), such that applications will increase from 1 million in 2010 to 2 million per year.i According to SIPO's "National Patent Development Strategy (2011-2020)" (the "Patent Strategy"), "China will rank among the top two in the world in terms of the annual number of patents for inventions."ii The Chinese government also expects that "the number of overseas patent applications filed by Chinese entities and individuals will double."iii However, this ambitious plan cannot relieve concerns about the quality of Chinese innovation. The basis for these concerns is that "the vast majority of these applications are for utility model patents that merely undergo a preliminary examination for formalities rather than substance—a concept that does not exist in the US."iv According to a Shanghai-based patent attorney quoted by the Economist: "Patents are easy to file but gems are hard to find in a mountain of junk."v

China has undertaken a number of efforts to transform from a country where products are merely "made" to one where they are innovated, designed, and branded.vi During the past 20 years, China has made several significant and meaningful amendments to its intellectual property laws. Nevertheless, China has realized that its current patent system without further improvement could hinder the Patent Strategy: "The patent system has not become fully integrated with development of socialist market economy, and its role has not been brought into full play in guiding industrial restructuring and upgrading and promoting China's innovation capacity."vii The systems and mechanisms for patent administration need to be improved and legal enforcement of patent protection needs to be further enhanced. To this end, on August 10, 2012, SIPO published the first draft of the proposed Fourth Amendment to China's Patent Law for public comment. This article provides an overview of the legislative history of China's Patent Law and its amendments, analyzes the proposed Fourth Amendment's positive and negative effects, and provides additional recommendations for the new amendment.

II. LEGISLATIVE HISTORY OF THE CHINESE PATENT LAW AND ITS FIRST THREE AMENDMENTS

China's patent system became modernized in 1984 under Deng Xiaoping's Economic Reform Policy. From 1978, China transformed from a planned economy to a market-oriented economy. During the 1980s, the Chinese intellectual property system was established through a series of laws: the Trademark Law in 1982,viii the Patent Law in 1984,ix and the Copyright law in 1990.x Each of these laws was designed for the Chinese political and economic environment, while following international trends in intellectual property law.

The first Patent Law, which set the foundation for the Chinese patent system, was promulgated on March 12, 1984, and came into effect on April 1, 1985.xi Although the patent system started when China still had a planned economy,xii the 1984 Patent Law contained all of the basic elements of a modern patent system, including provisions concerning conditions for granting patent rights, filing and prosecuting patents, and protecting patent and related rights.xiii Under the first Patent Law, there were three types of patents based on the "first-to-file" principle: inventions,xiv utility models,xv and designs.xvi Each of these is still used today.

On January 17, 1992, the Chinese and American governments entered into an agreement called the "Memorandum Of Understanding Between The Government Of The People's Republic Of China And The Government Of The United States Of America On The Protection Of Intellectual Property."xvii This document required China to amend its Patent Law. The first amendment to the 1984 Patent Law was enacted on September 4, 1992 ("First Amendment").xviii The core changes included forbidding importation of patented products without the patent holder's permission,xix extending the protection of invention patents from 15 to 20 years,xx extending the protection of utility model patents and design patents from 5 to 10 years,xxi and broadening the scope of patentable inventions.xxii

In 1994, China joined the Patent Cooperation Treaty ("PCT")xxiii and the Chinese Patent Office became the PCT International Receiving Office, International Search Authority, and the International Preliminary Examination Authority for China.

The Second Amendment to the Patent Law was driven by China's 2001 accession to the World Trade Organization ("WTO")xxiv and the need to comply with Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights ("TRIPS") agreementxxv requirements. The Second Amendment was promulgated on August 25, 2000, and came into force on July 1, 2001. It abolished the term "patent right holder," and substituted the term "patentee."xxvi The concept of employment invention-creation was also defined more clearly in the new amendment.xxvii In addition, this amendment added provisions regarding offers to sellxxviii and preliminary measures,xxix such as evidence preservation. After this amendment, China's patent system was, in essence, consistent with TRIPS requirements.

Unlike the two earlier amendments, which were driven by foreign businesses and governments, China's third amendment was designed to foster the development of its own domestic economy and technology.xxx In 2007, the 17th National Congress of China focused on enhancing the capacity of indigenous innovation. The next year in 2008, the State Council formulated the Outline of National Intellectual Property Strategy.xxxi On December 27, 2008, China's Patent Law was amended for the third time and came into force on October 1, 2009 (the "Third Amendment").

The Third Amendment introduced the absolute novelty standard to the Chinese patent system. Under that standard, an invention is not new and therefore not patentable if it was publicly known or publicly used in China or in any foreign country, or described in any publication in China or any foreign country before the filing of the patent application. By contrast, under the previous Chinese patent law, only disclosures in printed publication in China or a foreign country before the filing date could destroy novelty. Public knowledge and mere use or sales in China or a foreign country did not destroy novelty. The Third Amendment, among other things, adopted a foreign filing license policy, introduced pretrial preservation measures, and added the costs incurred by the patentee in stopping infringement to the calculation of damages.xxxii In sum, the Third Amendment upgraded the Chinese patent system to keep pace with international standards.

III. THE DRAFT FOURTH AMENDMENT

A. Legislative History of the Draft of the Fourth Amendment

In 2011, SIPO initiated the fourth revision process to China's Patent Law, conducted comprehensive research in 2012, and, on August 10, 2012, released the first draft of the fourth amendment for public comments (the "proposed Fourth Amendment").xxxiii

On November 13, 2011, the State Council released a working agenda concerning the protection of intellectual property rights ("IPR") and the crackdown on the production and sale of counterfeit goods.xxxiv The working agenda pointed out that combating the infringement of IPR and the counterfeiting of goods will be a long-lasting, complicated, and tough mission.xxxv Therefore, it required revising relevant laws and regulations to enhance punishment and establishing a long-lasting effective legal mechanism.xxxvi

To implement the State Council's requirements, SIPO began to amend the Patent Law for the fourth time in November 2011 and, in 2012, the revision of the Patent Law was placed on the State Council's legislative agenda. In June 2012, SIPO conducted a meeting to set up the core legislative purpose of the revision: "strengthening patent protection and intensifying law enforcement."xxxvii To create a better patent system, the new revision proposes enhancements of both administrative enforcement and judicial protection.

B. Salient Modifications Under the Proposed Fourth Amendment

Evidence of patent infringement can be difficult to obtain because patent infringement generally is easy to conceal. This difficulty is especially problematic in a country like China, which lacks a formal discovery process to collect evidence.xxxviii The difficulty is further exacerbated by the development of the Internet and improvements to logistics, both of which have accelerated the manufacturing and distribution of infringing products.xxxix "Willful infringement, repeated infringement and infringement by multiple parties" frequently occur.xl To safeguard their patent rights, patentees must incur significant costs in time and money. Such obstacles oftentimes severely discourage innovation and disturb market order.

To address these problems, the Fourth Amendment proposes the below provisions.

1. Provides judicial and administrative authorities the power of investigation and evidence collection.

To address the difficulty in obtaining evidence of infringement, the proposed Fourth Amendment provides a two-pronged approach.

First, it affirms the People's Courts' right of investigation and evidence collection. For example, Article 61 provides the following:

During patent infringement litigation, based on the request from the plaintiff or its litigation agent, the People's Courts shall investigate and collect according to law evidence with respect to alleged infringing products and books, information or other evidence controlled by accused infringer; [i]f the accused infringer refuses to provide, or transfer, falsify, or destroy evidence, the People's Courts according to law take forceful actions against obstructing civil litigation; [f]or those that commit a crime, a criminal penalty according to law will be charged.xli

Second, the Fourth Amendment gives the administrative authority more power to investigate patent infringement and to punish noncooperation. Under the proposed Article 64 (1), the administrative authority for patent affairs has the right of investigation and evidence collection in patent infringement cases and patent counterfeiting cases. In addition, "[i]f the party that is subjected to investigation refuses or obstructs the administrative authority for patent affairsxlii to perform its duties, the administrative authority for patent affairs shall issue warnings."xliii And "[f]or severe situations, the administrative penalties for public security shall be imposed according to law."xliv

2. Empowers the administrative authority for patent affairs to determine the amount of compensation in patent infringement cases.

The existing Patent Law allows the administrative authority for patent affairs to mediate patent infringement cases.xlv If the mediation fails, parties may take legal action before a People's Court.xlvi In practice, however, administrative mediation agreements regarding compensation are unenforceable. As a result, infringers typically bring civil actions regarding compensation issues, which place further burdens on the patentee and waste time and administrative and judicial resources.

To address this problem and speed up the process of awarding compensation, the proposed revision of Article 65 gives both the administrative authority for patent affairs and the People's Court the discretion to determine the amount of compensation for patent infringement.xlvii

3. Affirms the effective date of a decision on invalidity and subsequent procedures in order to improve efficiency of infringement litigation.

The effective date of the decision by the Patent Reexamination Board—either declaring a patent right invalid or affirming the validity of a patent—is important because it directly affects the efficiency of patent infringement litigation. Currently, the Patent Law and its Implementing Regulations have no provision regarding the effective date; in practice, this omission results in prolonging patent infringement disputes.xlviii

The proposed Fourth Amendment revises Article 46 by adding a provision that expressly states that "[o]nce the decision on declaring a patent right invalid or affirming the validity of a patent is made, the patent administrative authority under the State Council shall register and publish it at once; [t]he effective date of the decision starts from the date of publication."xlix In addition, to improve the efficiency of resolving patent infringement disputes, Article 60(4) of the proposed Fourth Amendment requires that "[o]nce the decision announcing the invalidity or validity of a patent becomes effective, the administrative authority for patent affairs and the People's Courts shall promptly adjudicate or process the patent infringement dispute based on the decision."l

4. Introduces punitive damages for willful infringement to increase patentees' compensation and deter infringement.

According to the current Patent Law, patent infringement compensation is based on "actual losses," which means the amount of compensation shall be equal to the patentee's actual losses caused by the infringement.li If it is difficult to determine the actual losses, the amount of compensation may be determined according to the "benefits acquired by the infringer" through infringement.lii If it is difficult to determine the losses of the patentee or the benefits acquired by the infringer, the amount of compensation may be determined according to the "reasonably multiplied amount of the royalties of that patent."liii

However, protecting intellectual property rights usually costs more than protecting tangible property, while the costs and risks to infringing intellectual property rights is less than those for infringing tangible property rights. Consequently, in practice, the "actual losses" principle cannot offset the patentees' losses, and does not deter infringement.liv

Therefore, the proposed Fourth Amendment introduces a new provision providing for a punitive damages award. "For willful patent infringement, the administrative authority for patent affairs or the People's Court may, based on circumstances and scale of infringement, result of the injury, or other factors, raise the damages to a maximum of three times of the damages. . . ."lv SIPO believes punitive damages will encourage patentees to take legal actions and will also stimulate innovation.lvi

5. Delegates to the administrative authority for patent affairs the authority and duty to investigate and cease willful infringement.

"Vicious infringement" cases, including "willful infringement, repeated infringement and infringement by multiple parties," occur frequently.lvii Patentees must pursue legal actions against each infringer on an individual basis. Without meaningful compensation and legal protection, many patentees are unwilling to incur the high costs in time and money to defend their rights, thus losing faith in the patent protection system. Not only does vicious infringement infringe patentees' rights, they also disturb market order, undermine the patent system's authority, and undermine creativity in society.lviii

To reduce vicious infringement, the proposed Fourth Amendment grants the administrative authority for patent affairs the power to independently investigate and handle patent infringement activities that allegedly disturb market order and the authority to award administrative punishment. The proposed Article 60(3) provides the following:

Once the administrative authority for patent affairs has determined that the infringement is established and disturbs the market order, said department shall order infringement to be ceased, seize unlawful gains, and seize or destroy infringing products or specific equipment used for infringement, and impose a fine up to four times of the unlawful gains; [f]or instances of no unlawful gains or unlawful gains that are difficult to determine, a fine of less than 200,000 may be imposed.lix

In addition, for cases with national influence, the patent administrative authority of the State Council has the authority and duty to investigate and handle patent infringement cases.lx

IV. POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF THE PROPOSED FOURTH AMENDMENT

If the proposed Fourth Amendment is enacted, there will be many positive effects. In general, it will expedite patent litigation, facilitate the obtainment of evidence, make compensation more favorable to the patentee, and deter infringement.

A. Expediting Patent Litigation by Reducing Delay Associated With Requests For Invalidation

Under the current Chinese patent law, the People's Court has no power to invalidate patents. The patent trial court usually waits for the validity decision from SIPO's Patent Reexamination Board ("PRB"). The speed of invalidation proceedings before the PRB has a tremendous impact on the whole patent litigation proceeding. By reducing delay with requests for invalidation (i.e. requiring prompt registration and announcement of the PRB's decision), the amendment will greatly speed up litigation. Since the effective date of the invalidation decision starts from the date of publication, the parties in a patent litigation do not need to wait until after the publication. The whole patent litigation process should move much more quickly.

B. Introducing Punitive Damage to Deter Willful Infringement

As mentioned above, the current Patent Law only awards compensatory damages based on "actual losses suffered" or "illegal gains obtained," which are typically not sufficient to compensate the patentee's overall losses. With the addition of punitive damages (i.e. up to three times compensatory damages), this should substantially deter vicious infringement activities, especially willful patent infringement. The patent owners will be more encouraged to enforce their rights.

C. Helping to Obtain Evidence

Proposed Article 61(3) gives the People's Court the authority and duty to investigate and collect evidence based on a request from the plaintiff. If the accused infringer refuses to cooperate, the People's Court may take forceful actions against the obstruction of civil litigation or impose a criminal penalty. Thus, by providing judicial authorities with the right to investigate and collect evidence, and the authority to punish obstruction, the amendment should solve the problem of obtaining evidence and further encourage alleged infringers to cooperate in litigation.lxi

D. Potential Issues

The proposed Fourth Amendment aims to improve the enforceability of patents. The Amendment grants several powers to the administrative authorities, such as evidence preservation, damages recovery methods, and the right to investigate and punish the alleged patent infringer.

However, due to the complexity of patent infringement, it is likely that the administrative authorities lack the legal expertise and human resources and will face great challenges with a patent infringement case. Also, these authorities may overuse or abuse their administrative power. The administrative authority may favor one party over the other and just look for evidence to support a favored party. The law should be amended to include additional definitions, guidelines, and further explanations to prevent abuse of power.lxii For instance, to affirm patent infringement and to award damages, more detailed regulations are needed to guide administrative authorities.

Another issue is that the term "willful" in the proposed Fourth Amendment is not defined. One possible definition could be "with knowledge of a patent or infringement" and to further specify that "active inducement of infringement is willful if it is done deliberately and intentionally." By providing a clear definition of "willful infringement," different courts in China could apply the same standard and provide predictability to patentees.

Finally, a further concern is to ensure the fairness and transparency of law enforcement.lxiii "Without more clarity and safeguards, the law may not reach its full potential and could be open to abuse."lxiv

V. CONCLUSION

National economic growth depends profoundly on innovation, which fosters new products that achieve what their predecessors could not, delivers improved processes for the creation of goods and services, and guides business to success.lxv There are many ways to boost innovation, including through the support of basic research and development, improvements in the availability of capital for start-up businesses, greater educational opportunities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics,lxvi and greater protection of intellectual property.

A comprehensive patent system is fundamental to nurturing innovation. China has an ambitious patent strategy to drastically increase its annual patent filings. According to the National Medium- and Long-Term Plan for Science and Technology Development 2006-2020,lxvii China plans to become an innovation-based economy by 2020 and a global leader by 2050. However, despite these inspiring polices, there are many obstacles to realizing this lofty goal. A faulty patent system and low quality patents are two of them.

The proposed Fourth Amendment "strengthen[s] patent protection and intensif[ies] law enforcement" by giving administrative departments more power and increasing patentees' potential compensation. The revised provisions will improve the enforceability of patents in China, thereby reducing patent infringement and helping to stimulate innovation. However, greater enforcement alone is not enough to bring innovation.

To foster China's independent capacity for innovation, there needs to be an even greater focus on the quality of patents. Unfortunately, the proposed Fourth Amendment does not address how to improve patent quality.

The former Director of the United States Patent and Trademark Office has recognized that, "[p]atent filings do not equal innovation, by any stretch."lxviii Chinese experts have also recognized the existence of a large number of "junk patents," which have been encouraged by governmental subsidies that promote quick payment for patents.lxix Junk patents mostly come from utility model patents, which are subject to lower standards of inventiveness and review and undergo no substantive examination upon grant. A large number of patent filings cannot conceal the relatively low overall quality of Chinese patents.lxx Thus, current Chinese patent policy has placed a heavy focus on quantitative patent targets, which may "incentivize the pursuit of immediate and incremental results over breakthrough innovation."lxxi

Although SIPO's efforts to revise Patent Law have been well recognized and prized, the author highly recommends that SIPO further revise the current Patent Law to improve patent quality in order to foster innovation. How to ensure both quantity and quality of patents is a significant matter that should also be considered during the comment period of the proposed Fourth Amendment.

Footnotes

i National Patent Development Strategy (2011-2020), State Intell. Prop. Office (Nov. 18, 2010), http://www.sipo.gov.cn/ztzl/ndcs/zscqxcz/2011ipweek/tpstr2011/201104/t20110419_598974.html (Chinese version), http://graphics8.nytimes.com/packages/pdf/business/SIPONatPatentDevStrategy.pdf (English version).

ii Id.

iii Id.

iv Anil Gupta & Haiyan Wang, China Can't Be a Global Innovation Leader Unless It Does These Three Things, Harv. Bus. Rev. (2013), http://blogs.hbr.org/2013/11/china-cant-be-a-global-innovation-leader-unless-it-does-these-three-things/.

v Id.

vi See Teresa Stanek, Rea, Dep. Under Sec'y of Com. for IP, Intellectual Property Trends and Developments with China, Prepared Remarks at Fordham Law School China Event (Jan. 28, 2013), http://www.uspto.gov/news/speeches/2013/rea_fordham_china.jsp.

vii National Patent Development Strategy (2011-2020), supra note 1.

viii See Trademark Law of the People's Republic of China (Aug. 23, 1982, last amended Oct. 27, 2001), http://english.sipo.gov.cn/laws/relatedlaws/200804/t20080416_380361.html.

ix See Patent Law of the People's Republic of China (Mar. 12, 1984, last amended Dec. 27, 2008) ("Third Amendment"), http://english.sipo.gov.cn/laws/lawsregulations/201101/t20110119_566244.html.

x See Copyright Law of the People's Republic of China (Sept. 7, 1990, last amended Oct. 27, 2001), http://english.sipo.gov.cn/laws/relatedlaws/200804/t20080416_380362.html.

xi See Patent Law, supra note 9.

xii See Gao Lulin, New Developments of the Chinese Patent System, 7(1) World Libraries (Fall 1996), http://www.worlib.org/vol07no1/lulin_v07n1.shtml (last visited Feb. 11, 2014).

xiii See 1984 Zhuan li fa [Patent Law], http://old.chinacourt.org/flwk/show.php?file_id=3438 (Chinese version).

xiv See Patent Law, supra note 9, art. 2 ("Inventions mean new technical solutions proposed for a product, a process or the improvement thereof.").

xv Id. ("Utility models mean new technical solutions proposed for the shape and structure of a product, or the combination thereof, which are fit for practical use.").

xvi Id. ("Designs mean, with respect to a product, new designs of the shape, pattern, or the combination thereof, or the combination of the color with shape and pattern, which are rich in an aesthetic appeal and are fit for industrial application.").

xvii See Memorandum of Understating Between the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Government of the United States of American on the Protection of Intellectual Property (1992), http://tcc.export.gov/trade_agreements/all_trade_agreements/exp_005362.asp (last visited Feb. 11, 2014).

xviii See Patent Law of the People's Republic of China (amended by the Standing Comm. Nat'l People's Cong., Sep. 4, 1992) ("First Amendment"), http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=138095.

xix Id. art. 11(3).

xx Id. art. 45.

xxi Id.

xxii Id.

xxiii See The Patent Cooperation Treaty in 1994, World Intellectual Property Organization, http://www.wipo.int/export/sites/www/pct/en/activity/pct_1994.pdf.

xxiv See China and the WTO, World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/countries_e/china_e.htm .

xxv See TRIPS Material on the WTO Website, World Trade Organization, http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/trips_e.htm.

xxvi See Patent Law of the People's Republic of China (amended by the Standing Comm. Nat'l People's Cong., Aug. 25, 2000) ("Second Amendment") art. 6, http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?file_id=125983.

xxvii Id.

xxviii See Second Amendment, supra note 26, art. 11.

xxix Id. art. 66.

xxx See Peter K. Yu, The Middle Kingdom and the Intellectual Property World, 26 Or. Rev. of Int'l L. 209 (2011), at http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1934887.

xxxi See Outline of the National Intellectual Property Strategy, State Intell. Prop. Office, Jun. 5, 2008, available at http://english.sipo.gov.cn/laws/developing/200906/t20090616_465239.html (last visited Feb. 11, 2014).

xxxii See General Introduction to the Third Revision of the Patent Law of the People's Republic of China and Its Implementing Regulations, State Intell. Prop. Office (Dec. 10, 2010), http://english.sipo.gov.cn/laws/lawsregulations/201012/t20101210_553631.html.

xxxiii See Draft of Patent Law Amendment (for public comments) ("Fourth Amendment"), State Intell. Prop. Office, http://www.sipo.gov.cn/yw/2012/201208/t20120809_736772.html (Chinese version).

xxxiv See The State Council's Work Agenda about Protection Of Intellectual Property Rights and Crackdown on the Production and Sale of Counterfeit Goods, State Council (Nov. 13, 2011), http://www.gov.cn/zwgk/2012-01/20/content_2049677.htm (Chinese version).

xxxv Id.

xxxvi Id.

xxxvii Fourth Amendment, supra note 33.

xxxviii See Intellectual Property Rights, Embassy of the United States (Beijing, China), http://beijing.usembassy-china.org.cn/iprpatent.html ("The Chinese legal system does not provide for a formal "discovery" process as in the United States, which includes the pre-trial exchange of information and increases the likelihood of settlement prior to adjudication.").

xxxix Fourth Amendment, supra note 33.

xl See Stephen Yang, Patent Law and Regulations Continue to Change, Lexology (Mar. 27, 2013), http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=dc76a812-facf-4174-aa1b-055ed644553a.

xli Fourth Amendment, supra note 33, art. 61.

xlii Third Amendment, supra note 9, art. 3 ("The Patent Administrative Authority under the State Council shall be responsible for the administration of patent affairs nationwide. It shall accept and examine patent applications in a uniform way and grant patent rights in accordance with law. The departments in charge of patent affairs of the people's governments of provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government shall be responsible for patent administration within their respective administrative areas.").

xliii Fourth Amendment, supra note 33, art. 64(1).

xliv Id.

xlv Third Amendment, supra note 9, art. 60(1).

xlvi Id.

xlvii Fourth Amendment, supra note 33, art. 65.

xlviii Id., supra note 33.

xlix Id. art. 46.

l Id. art. 60(4).

li Third Amendment, supra note 9, art. 65(1).

lii Id.

liii Id.

liv Fourth Amendment, supra note 33.

lv Id. art. 65(3).

lvi Id.

lvii Id.

lviii Id.

lix Id. art. 60(3).

lx Id.

lxi See Kaixuan Yu, Zhuan li fa di si ci xiu gai: xing zheng zhi fa he si fa bao hu de wu tai [The Fourth Amendment of Patent Law: Administrative Enforcement and Judicial Protection], Dian zi zhi shi chan quan [Elec. Intell. Prop.], Feb. 20, 2013, at 42 (Chinese version), http://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?recid=&FileName=DZZS2013Z1020&DbName=CJFD2013&DbCode=CJFD&v=MDAyOTJGaXJtV3JyT0lUZlJmYkc0SDlLbXJvOUhaSVFMQkhrNXpoUmw0am

Q1U1gzbXJHTkhGckNVUkw2ZlplZHI=.

lxii See Xiaoqing Feng, Zhuan li fa di si ci xiu gai zhi zai ti sheng guo jia chuang xin neng li [Fourth Amendment of Patent Law Aiming to Improve Innovation Capacity], Zhongguo she hui ke xue bao [Chinese Social Science Today], Oct. 17, 2012 , at A07 (Chinese version), http://oversea.cnki.net/kcms/detail/detail.aspx?recid=&FileName=CSHK20121017A071&DbName=CCND2012&DbCode=CCND&v=MTE5NDJBeGVjUG1LcmlmWnVKdkZDamdVcjNOSmw0V0pqN0RaYkc0SDlQTnI0

NUNGZXNJRFJNOXh4TVQ2ejBMUUhmbXJS.

lxiii Fourth Amendment, supra note 33, art. 61(3) .

lxiv Aaron Wininger, China's Proposed Fourth Amendment to the Patent Law: A Significant Increase to the Value of Patent Rights in China?, Perkins Coie LLP (Sep. 4, 2012), http://www.perkinscoie.com/news/pubs_Detail.aspx?publication=691ef72d-ed12-4c18-92b3-e909d7ef110a.

lxv See Chen Wang et al., Article: Collaborative Innovation and Economic Growth: A Comment on China's Innovation Policies, 2013 Cardozo L. Rev. De Novo 148 (2013), http://www.cardozolawreview.com/content/denovo/WANG_2013_148.pdf .

lxvi Id.

lxvii See China Issues S&T Development Guidelines, Chinese Government's Official Web Portal (Feb. 9, 2006), http://english.gov.cn/2006-02/09/content_183426.htm.

lxviii Gregory Ferenstein, Patent Director: 'Patent Filings Do Not Equal Innovation,' U.S. Needs New Measure, Fast Company (Mar. 12, 2011), http://www.fastcompany.com/1738089/patent-director-patent-filings-do-not-equal-innovation-us-needs-new-measure (quoting David Kappos, Dir. of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office); see Chen Wang et al., supra note 65.

lxix See Xiaoyan Wang, La ji zhuan li fan lan [Junk Patent Flooding], Fa zhi wang [Legal Daily] (Feb. 25, 2013) (Chinese version), http://www.legaldaily.com.cn/index/content/2013-02/25/content_4222652.htm?node=20908.

lxx See Zhongguo qu nian zhuan li shen qing liang shou po bai wan zheng ti zhi liang yi jiu bu gao [China's patent applications break one million for the first time last year - overall quality still not high], Zhongguo xin wen wang [China News Network] (Nov. 10, 2011) (Chinese version), http://www.chinanews.com/cj/2011/11-10/3450986.shtml.

lxxi Wininger, supra note 64.

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Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions