China: 投资越南的劳动用工法律问题

Last Updated: 4 December 2019
Article by Jǐng Hào
Most Read Contributor in China, November 2019

劳动力成本相对较低,是越南吸引外资的主要优势之一。越南15岁以上劳动力5480 万人,占总人口55%以上,根据越南政府规定,2018年起劳动力最低月薪为267~398万越南盾(约合800~1200元人民币)。另一方面,劳工问题是投资规划、投资运营中的重要方面,我国赴越投资者需给予重视。

越南劳动、伤兵和社会事务部对劳动领域负有主要监管责任。《劳动法典》处理多数与劳工相关的问题,例如招募、劳动合同、工作时长、休息期、纪律和争议解决等。《劳动法典》适用于当地和海外雇员及雇主。下文对投资越南相关劳工法律问题的十八个主要方面进行简要介绍。

1.劳动合同 用人单位和雇员可以自主协商劳动合同的内容,只要不低于劳动法的要求和标准。三类劳动合同可以使用:ⅰ.无固定期限劳动合同,即双方未明确约定雇用结束期限;ⅱ.固定期限劳动合同,即双方约定特定的雇用期限,时间在12个月至36个月之间;ⅲ.季节性或特定工作劳动合同(短于12个月),若此类合同到期后,员工继续受雇于企业,劳动合同自动转化为24个月的固定期限合同。

劳动合同需包含以下内容:用人单位的名称和地址,及其法律代表人;雇员的姓名、出生日期、性别、住址、身份证件/护照信息等;工作岗位及地点;劳动合同期限;工资标准、工资支付方式、补贴及其他福利;晋升、加薪机制;工作、休息时间;个人劳保用品;社保、医保;培训、再培训、岗位技能提升等。

2.劳动合同签署 劳动合同需以书面形式签订,一式两份,用人单位与雇员各执一份。三个月以内的短期劳动合同,双方可以采取口头合同形式约定。 雇员年龄若在15岁至18岁之间,劳动合同需经该雇员的法定监护人同意。 越南本地的劳动合同需要以越南语签订,或者双语(如越南语与英语)签订。

3.集体劳动协议 签订公司层面的集体劳动协议(CLA),目前并非强制性的要求。集体劳动合同一经签订,需在10天内上报劳动部门。 用人单位有义务遵守和履行集体劳动协议。在劳资谈判过程中,劳动集体以简单多数通过劳动协议内容之后,劳动集体的代表与用人单位签订集体劳动协议,该协议即对用人单位产生约束力。越南劳动法认可某些特定行业的集体劳动协议(ICLA),政府鼓励(但不要求)用人单位适用行业集体劳动协议。

4.试用期 双方可对试用合同进行约定、修改和补充。 试用时间上,要求高等及以上专业和技术水平工作的试用期不超过60天,技术和专业要求一般性水平的工作试用期不超过30天,其他类型工作试用期不超过6天。试用期薪资不少于正式录用薪资的85%。 试用期满后,如试用员工符合岗位要求,则双方应签订劳动合同。 如员工没有达到双方约定的岗位要求,试用期内双方均可随时解除试用合同,无需提前通知或进行任何补偿。 试用期员工无需缴纳社会保险。

5.最低工资 越南最低工资在逐年增长。政府规定的2019年的最低工资标准是VND4,180,000(USD180)(河内、胡志明、海防、平阳、同奈、巴地等地)。 工作日,夜班在基本工资基础上额外计30%补贴;加班在基本工资基础上额外计50%补贴。夜班补贴、加班补贴分别各自计算(企业需通过优化排班来降低相应成本)。加班需征得员工的同意。 休息日,安排员工加班的,支付不低于200%的工资报酬。 法定节假日(包括其他的带薪休假日),安排员工加班的,支付不低于300%的工资报酬。

6.工作时间 工作时长,每天不超过8小时,每周不超过48小时。双方可协商超时工作,但超时工作每天不超过4小时,每年不超过200小时。

7.带薪休假 员工受雇用人单位满12个月,可享受12天带薪年休假。工作时间满5年的,年休假为13天,工作时间满10年的,年休假为14天,以后每增加五年增加1天。 员工依法享有带薪婚假,员工自己结婚的婚假为3天,员工子女结婚的婚假为1天。 若员工父母(含配偶的父母)、配偶、子女去世,员工享有3天带薪假期。

8.劳动报酬的计算及报告 用人单位可以在政府规定的基础上,制定工资标准、工资单和工作时限要求,并与雇员协商后载于劳动合同,并据此执行。 制定工资标准、工资单和工作时限要求的过程中,用人单位需要与工会进行协商沟通。工资标准、工资单和工作时限等方案,需上报劳动部门,并在雇员工作场所予以公布。 奖金方案,同样需要经与工会协商,并在工作场所予以公布。

9.强制保险 工作时间超过3个月和无固定期限合同,须办理强制性社会保险。劳工因工伤残,雇主须支付医疗费,如未投保,亦按社会保险条件支付赔偿。根据越南社会保险局595/QD-BHXH号通知,自2017年6月1日起执行最新的社会保险缴纳标准,其中社会保险项目,用人单位和雇员缴纳标准分别相当于雇员月基本工资的17.5%和8%;医疗保险项目分别是 3%和1.5%;失业保险项目双方均为1%。 社会保险主要用于补偿员工因生病、怀孕及生产、工伤、职业病、退休等遭受的收入损失。失业保险主要用于部分补偿员工因失业遭受的收入损失,同时也用于支持员工培训、保持就业、寻求职业等。

10.终止劳动合同 劳动合同因以下情形而终止:ⅰ.劳动合同到期;ⅱ.劳动合同约定的工作任务完成;ⅲ.雇员退休;ⅳ.法院判决或裁定,雇员不得继续从事合同约定工作;ⅴ.雇员死亡,或丧失劳动能力;ⅵ.用人单位停止经营;ⅶ.法律规定的(雇员或用人单位)单方解除劳动合同;ⅷ.解雇;ⅸ.裁员。

由于重组、技术革新或经济不景气等原因,用人单位需要裁员的,应按照下述用人单位单方面解除劳动合同的"提前通知"、"遣散费"等要求处理,且用人单位需要在劳动合同解除后7个工作日内,履行全部工资、遣散费等支付义务,并交接返回保险等员工资料。当然,用人单位事先与工会、劳动部门的充分汇报沟通十分必要。用人单位需要与工会共同制定"劳工使用计划",且相关裁员方案提前30天通知劳动部门。

雇员可单方面解除劳动合同的情形:ⅰ.用人单位未按照合同约定指派工作岗位和工作地点、保障工作条件;ⅱ.用人单位未按照合同约定足额、及时支付劳动报酬;ⅲ.雇员受虐待、性侵或被强迫劳动;ⅳ.因个人或家庭困难不能继续从事该工作;ⅴ.经选举在国家机关担任职务或从事全职工作;ⅵ.怀孕且经具备资质医疗机构证明需要休假;ⅶ.生病或事故,且(固定期限劳动合同下)经90天持续治疗/(季节性或特定工作劳动合同下)经四分之一合同期时间持续治疗,仍不能从事该工作的。上述ⅰ,ⅱ,ⅲ和ⅶ情形,雇员需提前3个工作日通知用人单位;上述ⅳ和ⅴ情形,雇员需提前(固定期限劳动合同下)30日/(季节性或特定工作劳动合同下)3个工作日通知用人单位;上述ⅵ情形,雇员需要提前通知用人单位,提前的天数取决于具备资质医疗机构,若在非固定期限劳动合同下则需要提前45日通知,除非具备资质医疗机构提出更短期限。

用人单位可单方面解除劳动合同的情形:ⅰ.雇员不能完成合同约定工作;ⅱ.雇员生病或事故,且(非固定期限劳动合同下)经12个月持续治疗/(固定期限劳动合同下)经6个月持续治疗/(季节性或特定工作劳动合同下)经二分之一合同期时间持续治疗,仍不能从事该工作的;ⅲ.因自然灾害、火灾、法律约定的不可抗力等,用人单位需要减产或裁员,并进行过充分补偿后;ⅳ.在法律规定的劳动合同中止情形结束后,雇员仍不到岗的。以上情形用人单位解除劳动合同,需提前(非固定期限劳动合同下)45日/(固定期限劳动合同下)30日/(季节性或特定工作劳动合同下)3个工作日通知雇员。特定时期,即便发生以上情形,用人单位也不能单方面解除劳动合同,如员工正在休假、或生病期间(ⅱ.情形除外)。如用人单位在以上情形之外、或前述禁止期之内解除劳动合同的,可能被认定为非法解除劳动关系,用人单位将被要求给予经济赔偿、或甚至恢复相关雇员的劳动合同及工作。

11. 解雇 解雇是雇员违反劳动纪律时可采用的纪律处分,劳动法有相关规定,用人单位内部劳动规则也应予以载明。解雇意味着终止劳动合同,其受到严格的法律规制,仅在以下情形适用:ⅰ.雇员行窃、侵占、赌博、故意伤害(他人)、在工作场所吸毒、泄露技术或商业秘密、侵犯单位知识产权、不法行为对单位财产或权益造成重大损失或破坏、或有造成特别重大损失或破坏的威胁。ⅱ.雇员在受延期加薪处分期间,再次出现处分事由。或雇员曾受降级处分,并再次出现相同处分事由的。ⅲ.雇员无正当理由自行离岗,一个月内累计5天或一年内累计20天的。

投资者需要重视越南劳动法对解雇事项的特别规制,以避免不必要的麻烦。解雇需要在用人单位、雇员、以及工会之间充分沟通,程序上要进行会议通知、会议处理劳动违纪、会议纪要、发布劳动违纪处理决定等。用人单位需要特别谨慎处理,若产生争议,劳动部门和法庭通常采取有利于雇员的倾向态度,并对用人单位进行严格审查。

12.遣散费 用人单位终止劳动合同后,需要向雇员支付遣散费(解雇、退休除外),雇员工作12个月或以上的,均有权获得补偿金。 遣散费的基本计算公式为: 遣散费金额=工作年数×(当前月工资×0.5) "工作年数",指雇员实际工作年数,减去已兑现失业保险保障期间(如有),减去已经获得的任何补偿期间(如有)。"当前月工资",指前六个月的平均工资。 雇员工作12个月以内的,无需支付遣散费。

13.内部劳动规则、劳动安全与卫生 用人单位有十名及以上雇员的,需要制定内部劳动规则和员工手册,且需要在10天内上报劳动部门。 用人单位需要遵守劳动安全与卫生相关的法规。用人单位在制定内部劳动规则或劳动操作规范时,要遵照国家和地方的技术法规和标准规范,以确保其与作业、机器、设备、以及工作场所相适应。 总体而言,用人单位的义务主要表现在确保工作环境的安全与卫生、提供必要的安全培训和指导、定期进行环境设备检查等。 另外,用人单位需保障雇员的健康保险,并为雇员提供至少每年一次的体检。

14.工伤 通常,在劳动过程中、且与执行工作有关,发生的雇员的身体受伤或雇员死亡被认定为工伤,需进行赔偿。 (一)享受工伤补偿需具备以下条件 第一,伤亡事故在以下情形下发生:ⅰ.发生在工作时间内、劳动场所内;ⅱ.不在工作时间内、或不在劳动场所内,但是在执行用人单位或其有权指挥人员布置的工作;ⅲ.合理时间内,正常上下班途中。 第二,因以上事故,雇员劳动能力损减5%及以上。

(二)用人单位在以下情形下无需承担责任 ⅰ.雇员与他人发生冲突受到伤亡,该他人与工作无关; ⅱ.雇员自残; ⅲ.雇员服用违禁药品或毒品。

(三)用人单位的义务 ⅰ.及时提供急救,并垫付急救和医疗费用; ⅱ.为以下雇员支付急救、急诊、稳定治疗等的费用:对于有医疗保险的雇员,共担医疗费用,或承担超额部分的医疗费用;经医疗证明机构证明雇员劳动能力损减5%以下的,相应的评估费;对于没有医疗保险的雇员,全部的医疗费。 ⅲ.在雇员治疗或康复期间,支付全额工资; ⅳ.对工伤雇员提供医疗检查,确定其劳动能力、治疗、护理、以及康复等。 ⅴ.在劳动能力鉴定报告/工伤死亡事故调查报告出具后5天内,支付赔偿或补偿金。

(四)用人单位的赔偿金 赔偿金额按照以下标准确定: ⅰ.雇员劳动能力损减5%至10%的,至少赔偿1.5个月工资;其后,劳动能力损减11%至80%的,损减程度每增加1%赔偿金额增加0.4个月工资。 ⅱ.雇员劳动能力损减81 15.工会 基层工会执行委员会(公司内部工会)代表劳动者。若公司内部尚未建立工会,则由工会执行委员会的直接上级监管部门代表劳动者。当公司有5名及以上员工已经是工会成员、或自愿加入工会的,公司可设立基层工会。 用人单位在以下事项上需要与工会协商:ⅰ.制定与实施保障职业安全与卫生的计划;ⅱ.大面积裁员;ⅲ.制定劳动力使用计划;ⅳ.制定工资标准、工资单和工作时限;ⅴ.制定奖励计划;ⅵ.制定内部劳动规则;ⅶ.临时要求某雇员停工。 %及以上的,或雇员死亡的,至少赔偿30个月工资。

16.节假日 在越南,法定节假日包括:元旦(1月1日)、春节(农历正月初一)、雄王节(农历三月初十)、越南南方解放日(4月30日)、劳动节(5月1日)、中秋节(农历八月十五)、国庆节(9月2日)。 每周六、周日为公休日。

17.福利 福利,这里主要指各类假期、以及享有的休假薪酬。

(一)病假 雇员的病假工资相当于其请假前一个月作为社保基数的工资的75%。需要长期治疗且180日后仍需治疗的雇员,享受以下数额的病假工资:ⅰ.对于已缴纳30年以上社会保险的雇员,相当于其请假前一个月作为社保基数的工资的65%;ⅱ.对于已缴纳15年至30年社会保险的雇员,相当于其请假前一个月作为社保基数的工资的55%;ⅲ.对于已缴纳不满15年社会保险的雇员,相当于其请假前一个月作为社保基数的工资的45%。

(二)产假 女性雇员(正常工作条件下)享有6个月的产假。如果雇员一次生产超过一个孩子,则每多一个孩子再增加一个月的产假。产假期间的每月工资为休产假前6个月作为社保基数的工资的平均数的100%,产假期间的工资由社会保险基金支付。

(三)陪产假 当男性雇员的妻子顺产时,其享有5天的陪产假。如果其妻子进行剖腹产,则其享有7天的陪产假。如果其妻子顺产产下双胞胎,则其享有10天的陪产假。如果其妻子通过剖腹产产下双胞胎,则其享有14天的陪产假。如果其妻子一次产下超过2个孩子,则每多一个孩子额外增加3天的陪产假。

(四)抚养人权利 父母有权请假照顾其患病的孩子。若其孩子不满3岁,则父母享有每年每个孩子最长20个工作日的带薪假,若其孩子为3至7岁,该期限为15个工作日。这一期间的工资与病假工资的计算方法相同。 以上特殊期间的工资,均由社保基金而不是用人单位支付。

18.外籍劳工 外籍劳工涉及签证、工作许可、暂住证、税收、保险等事项。

(一)签证和工作许可 在越南工作3个月以上的外籍劳务人员须向所在省(直辖市)劳动部门申请工作许可证。申办工作许可证时,申请人须向当地劳动伤兵社会厅提交经国内公证机关公证、中国外交部及越南驻华使馆认证的健康证明、专业技术证书及无犯罪记录证明等资料。工作许可证的有效期通常是两年。在工作许可证到期前15天,用工单位应当收回工作许可证及时交还发证机构。 以下人员无需工作许可:公司董事会成员、总经理、副总经理、经理、副经理;驻越南代表处代表、分公司领导。劳动部门会发出免除工作许可通知。 在越南工作3个月以内的,则持有商务签证即可。 2014年,越南劳动伤兵与社会部颁发《关于外国人在越南就业管理规定实施细则》第 03/2014/TT-BLDTBXH号通知。按要求,用人单位应按 102/2013/ND-CP号议定第4条第1款规定在拟雇用外国人前至少30天向公司所在地劳动伤兵与社会厅提交外籍劳务雇用需求书面报告,报告内容包括工作岗位、外国人聘用人数、专业水平、工作经验、工资水平、工作期限等。若有变化,用人单位应在拟招聘或聘用新人替代前至少30天向公司所在地劳动伤兵与社会厅提交外籍劳务雇用需求调整书面报告。劳动伤兵与社会厅应在收到用人单位的外籍劳务雇用需求报告或外籍劳务雇用需求调整报告后15天内将其决定向用人单位反馈。

(二)居住证 获得工作许可后,外籍劳工可申请获得暂时居住证,其期限与工作许可一致。实务中,持证者需要在暂住的房东/土地所有人处登记其暂住证,房东/土地所有人亦需要依法向公安机关报告。 免除工作许可者,可持护照、签证、投资证书、公司证书(或代表处、分支机构证书等)、公安部门出具的临时住址证明等材料,办理居住证。家属同行的,需要携带出生证明、结婚证、户口本等材料。 实务中,通过中介结构可以较为方便地办理。

(三)所得税和保险 外籍劳工要及时进行登记,同时,法律也规定了半年一次的劳动使用报告和每季度一次的外籍劳工报告。 在越南居住的外籍劳工需要缴纳所得税,适用累进税率,税率自5%到35%不等。 根据2014年《越南社会保险法》,从2018年1月1日起,在越南工作一个月以上的外国劳动者必需参加强制社会保险。外国劳动者可享受社会保险待遇,包括疾病险、生育险、职业病险、工伤险、退休与死亡金。外国劳动者应当按月工资标准缴纳8%的退休与死亡金。用人单位按月工资标准最高缴纳18%的强制社会保险,包括3%疾病险和生育险,1%工伤险和职业病险;14%退休和死亡金。

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