China: 沉默不语的被告和巧舌如簧的律师

Last Updated: 8 November 2019
Article by Zou JiaMing

  江西东昉律师事务所主任熊昕律师,接受一起涉嫌强奸案的辩护委托,在与当事人会见时,谈话内容被隔壁房间的该案侦查人员全程监听。后检察机关根据该案犯罪嫌疑人和侦查人员的证言,起诉熊昕律师涉嫌辩护人伪造证据罪。

  刑法第306条规定的辩护人、诉讼代理人毁灭、伪造证据、妨害作证罪,自设立以来颇受诟病,在于它束缚了律师调查取证的权利,为"职业报复"埋下了伏笔。

  毫无疑问的是,该罪指向的是辩护人向外调取物证、书证等客观证据,或向证人取证的行为,并不涉及辩护人和他的委托人--犯罪嫌疑人或被告人两者内部之间提供法律服务的行为。唯有此,才能为辩护律师与当事人之间建立充足的信任留有充分的空间。

  所以,中国《刑事诉讼法》和《律师法》都明确规定,律师会见犯罪嫌疑人或被告人时不被监听。联合国《关于律师作用的基本原则》也明确规定:"各国政府应确认和尊重律师及其委托人之间在其专业关系内的所有联系和磋商均属保密性。""遭逮捕、拘留或监禁所有的人应有充分机会、时间和便利条件,毫无迟延地、在不被窃听、不经检查和完全保密情况下接受来访和与律师联系协商。这种协商可以在执法人员看得见但听不见的范围内进行。"很明确,法律在此情况下介入是保证会见的秩序和安全,并不涉及谈话内容。

  对熊昕案提起公诉,意味着国家刑罚权的触角将延伸到律师与当事人谈话这一隐秘空间,这不仅仅是刑法第306条的扩张适用,更有摧毁辩护律师与当事人之间信任基础的危险。潘多拉的盒子如若就此打开,说句可能耸人听闻的话,有倾覆中国刑事辩护制度的危险。

  这是因为,刑事辩护中的委托,某种程度上托付的是一个人或家庭中最重要的东西——生命、自由和财产,所以信任至关重要。这种没有感情基础的职业信任,主要依赖两个方面:一方面律师为委托人保守秘密,即使该秘密涉及委托人之前或将要实施的犯罪(特定情况下例外);另一方面,律师能站在委托人利益的立场,给予其充分的建议,帮助其作出选择和决定。而这两个条件得以实现的前提是,律师能够畅所欲言,律师和委托人之间的谈话不被监听。

  更进一步而言,法律不仅应为辩护人和委托人的秘密沟通创造条件,也应杜绝任何一方通过背信谋取利益的途径,可能这种利益并不是现实的,而是背信行为的动机,但是这并不重要,重要的是法律不应为律师和当事人之间的背信创造条件。这体现在立法上:一方面,律师泄露当事人秘密不仅是违背职业伦理的行为,有的国家还将此规定为犯罪。另一方面,当事人不能举报或者作证律师为其提供法律服务的行为涉嫌犯罪,因为法律规定这一行为具有保密性,任何披露这种行为的行为,都不是法律许可的。否则,从律师和当事人内部瓦解这种信任,保密权就形同虚设,刑事辩护制度也会因为缺少根基而土崩瓦解。

  美国著名刑事辩护律师艾伦·德肖维茨说:"美国的司法制度建立在'不说出'全部事实的基础之上,律师的工作就是用一切合法手段来隐瞒'全部事实'"。应该说,现代刑事诉讼制度就是建立在"不说出"基础上,这就是被告人享有"不得强迫自证其罪" 的权利。英国思想家霍布斯认为,每个人都有按照自己愿意的方式,运用自己的力量,保全自己生命自由的权利,这是一种先于法律存在的自然权利。在现代刑事诉讼中,一个人在法院裁判他(她)构成犯罪之前,都是无罪的,即使他(她)在法庭上被公诉机关指控犯罪,除非自愿,否则没有证明自己有罪的义务。当然,如果他自愿供述自己的罪行,法律应当给予其量刑奖励。这就是德肖维茨所说的"'不说出'全部事实的基础",也是无罪推定原则的当然结论,更是被告人作为与控方平等的刑事主体地位的体现。

  熊昕案之所以成案,是因为中国司法实践中还残留"口供为王"的陈旧观念,司法实践中侦查阶段存在的刑讯逼供、限制律师会见时向当事人出具共犯供述、庭审讯问时一再强调认罪态度等现象背后,都是此观念作祟。无可否认,犯罪嫌疑人和被告人如实供述,有利于在最小司法成本的情况下,高效地查清案件事实。问题是,每一个人在被指控犯罪的境况下都有自保的本能,这是人之天性,所有的法律规定都不能违背人性。更重要的是,只要允许该义务存在,在秘密的侦查阶段,侦查权就随时可能突破法律的底线,以强迫的方式获取最直接有效的犯罪嫌疑人或被告人的供述,则公民基本权利有被侵犯之虞。

  法律在这种情况下,实际面临两难的选择:强迫犯罪嫌疑人或被告人供述,可能引发刑讯逼供和冤家错案;允许犯罪嫌疑人或被告人沉默,可能放纵罪犯。但是,"一次不公正的裁判,其恶果甚至超过十次犯罪。"所以,"不得强迫自证其罪"实际上是"两害相权取其轻"之下的无奈选择。"法治的威力,不在对违法犯罪的严惩,而在劝人相信那由法律的意象和分类构筑的世界乃是他能够拥有的'唯一合理的生活世界'"。"不得强迫自证其罪"并不是一个完美的制度,却是在现实世界中相对合理且可行的制度。

  以"'不说出全部事实"为制度基础,侦查人员动用刑讯逼供手段获取犯罪嫌疑人供述的动机将大大减弱,公诉机关举证证明被告人构成犯罪的责任将大大加强,被告人有权申辩、狡辩,乃至保持沉默。所以,沉默不语的被告正是他(她)行使权利的生动形象。我国刑事诉讼法第55条明确规定:"对一切案件的判处都要重证据,重调查研究,不轻信口供。只有被告人供述,没有其他证据的,不能认定被告人有罪和处于刑罚;没有被告人供述,证据确实、充分的,可以认定被告人有罪和处以刑罚。"如果公诉机关有确凿、充分的证据,即使被告人不认罪,并不影响对其定罪处罚。那么,即使熊昕律师引导或诱导犯罪嫌疑人翻供或者不认罪,也没有实质意义。所以,熊昕案的问题不在于辩护律师做了什么,而在于侦查或公诉机关没有做好什么。

  美国哈佛大学法学院哈罗德·伯曼教授说:"真正伟大的律师必须是一个明智的顾问,当各种各样的人由于各种各样的生活危机而迫切需要听取法律方面的意见时,他能为这些人提供冷静的分析与建议。"如果律师在给出分析和建议时,法律要求他的意见不能让当事人作出翻供或者不认罪的决定,他将瞻前顾后、寸步难行。且不同的当事人对同一意见的反映是完全不同的,那么,这个罪名就不是由律师的行为而是由当事人的主观感受来决定的,这将置律师于万劫不复的境地。

  在此,我们不能回避的一个根本问题是,刑事诉讼的目的是什么?律师的作用是什么?刑事诉讼当然应该查清案件事实,这是公正裁判的基础。但是,在司法实践中,我们往往会遇到因为时间、记忆、技术等种种条件的限制,导致无法还原事实的窘境。如果我们执念于"真相",国家权力随时有被滥用的危险,律师在某种程度上,就是面对这一现实,为防止这种无处不在的危险而做出的制度设计。不论是在庭下为当事人提供建议,还是在庭上为当事人辩护,辩护律师都是为了平衡当事人和国家权力机关之间巨大的力量悬殊,因为"正义就是平等,但是平等并不等于正义。"为了防止出现冤案的最坏结果,法律必须容忍律师"用一切合法手段来隐瞒'全部事实'",但是,公诉机关可以举一国之力来追诉犯罪。所以,正义,不是追诉的结果,而是过程。

  查明"真相"是在刑事诉讼这个动态过程和个案的具体境况中实现的,也是可能根本无法实现的,在这个过程中,控辩审三方各司其职,律师的职责是维护当事人的权益,并在控辩对抗中,让法庭"兼听则明",最大限度地查明案件事实。好的律师,正如其所言:"作为辩护律师,我曾经参与过无数案件的审理,但是从来没有对我的委托人形成过关于他有罪还是无辜的个人看法。因为那不是我的工作,也不是我的功能,更不是我的责任。"所以,巧舌如簧的律师在任何国家都不是让人喜欢的形象,却是抵御国家权力必不可少的角色。

  我们生活在一个不完美的现实世界,都面临一些无奈的选择,法律也是如此。沉默不语的被告和巧舌如簧的律师,都是我们在这个不完美世界中的无奈选择,使我们拥有这样一个"唯一合理的生活世界"。

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