China: 《非法放贷刑事案件意见》解读

Last Updated: 6 November 2019
Article by Hanbo Shi
Most Read Contributor in China, October 2019

日前,最高法、最高检、公安部、司法部联合发布了《关于办理非法放贷刑事案件若干问题的意见》(以下简称"《意见》"),《意见》自2019年10月21日开始实施。《意见》的出台,可以说给民间借贷的"民刑交叉"领域增加了一个重磅规定。本文拟对《意见》的内容和实务适用进行简要的解读,以期对读者有所帮助。

一、非法放贷入刑的构成要件

根据《意见》第1条的规定,非法放贷入刑是被认定为《刑法》第225条规定的非法经营。具体的条文为第225条第4项,即"违反国家规定,有下列非法经营行为之一,扰乱市场秩序,情节严重的,处五年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚金;情节特别严重的,处五年以上有期徒刑,并处违法所得一倍以上五倍以下罚金或者没收财产:......(四)其他严重扰乱市场秩序的非法经营行为"。

"非法放贷罪"的构成要件可以表述为"违反国家规定,未经监管部门批准,或者超越经营范围,以营利为目的,经常性地向社会不特定对象发放贷款,扰乱金融市场秩序,情节严重的"行为。由于非法经营罪分为"情节严重"和"情节特别严重"两个量刑区间,相应的非法放贷构成的非法经营罪也分为"情节严重"和"情节特别严重"两类。行为人如果非法放贷,但尚未构成"情节严重"的,可能会受到行政处罚,但不属于犯罪行为。

非法放贷罪的具体构成要件如下:

(一)对非法放贷行为的理解

首先,"经常性地向社会不特定对象发放贷款" 是指2年内向不特定多人(包括单位和个人)以借款或其他名义出借资金10次以上。对"不特定"的理解,与非法吸收公众存款罪中对不特定社会公众的理解相同,即对于"不特定"对象可以从两个方面理解:(1)借款人与出借人是没有联系、没有关系的人或者单位;(2)借款人可能随时增加。因此,向亲朋好友出借资金,母子公司之间出借资金不属于向不特定对象出借资金。但是具有下列情形之一的,会被认定为向不特定对象出借资金:(1)通过亲友、单位内部人员等特定对象向不特定对象发放贷款的;(2)以发放贷款为目的,将社会人员吸收为单位内部人员,并向其发放贷款的;(3)向社会公开宣传,同时向不特定多人和亲友、单位内部人员等特定对象发放贷款的。

但是与非法吸收公众存款罪不同,构成非法放贷罪,要求实际已经向"多人"出借资金。对于"多人",一般是指3人以上(包括3人)。因此,如果仅是向单一的个人或单位出借资金10次以上,不够犯罪。对于发放贷款的次数,笔者认为应以实际签订的借款合同数量为准。如果是签订了一个金额较大的借款合同,然后分批次实际放款的,也应认为是1次放贷。并且贷款到期后延长还款期限的,并不增加贷款次数,还是属于1次放贷。

(二)对"情节严重"的理解

其次,构成"情节严重",要求以超过年36%的利率放贷,且达到一定的放贷数额、所得数额或放贷对象人数众多。具体而言,即以超过36%的实际年利率非法放贷,且有下列情况之一的:(1)个人非法放贷数额累计在200万元以上的,单位非法放贷数额累计在1000万元以上的;(2)个人违法所得数额累计在80万元以上的,单位违法所得数额累计在400万元以上的;(3)个人非法放贷对象累计在50人以上的,单位非法放贷对象累计在150人以上的;(4)造成借款人或者其近亲属自杀、死亡或者精神失常等严重后果的。

对于放贷的数额,应以实际出借给借款人的本金金额认定。对于砍头息,即从本金中预先扣除利息的情形,如何认定本金和利息,可能会存在争议。从民间借贷的民事审判角度,存在砍头息的,以扣除砍头息之后的金额为实际借款本金,并且按照这个本金数额计算利息。对应到刑事案件中,扣除砍头息之后计算为本金,是有利有弊的。利的一面是减少了放贷金额,不利的一面是根据已经实际收取的利息计算利率时,会提高利率水平。根据《意见》第5条的表述,"非法放贷数额应当以实际出借给借款人的本金金额认定",但是"以从本金中预先扣除等方式收取"的"砍头息"也作为利息计算,这样可能就不太合理了。笔者认为,应当将实际出借给借款人的资金认定为本金,并据此计算放贷额数和实际利率,同时"砍头息"不再作为实际收取的利息计算在内。

违法所得的计算,以非法放贷行为人实际收取的除本金之外的全部财物为准,也即所有的实际利息属于违法所得。应当注意,如果是在本金之外收取的实物,应当评估其价值,折算后计入实际利率。

非法放贷行为未经处理的,非法放贷次数和数额、违法所得数额、非法放贷对象数量等应当累计计算。即行为人以往的非法放贷行为,没有经过行政处罚或刑事处罚的,均应在本次案件办理时计入。

应当注意,放贷利率不超过36%的,无论放贷金额多少,放贷对象人数多少,都不构成犯罪。"非法放贷罪"本质上是制裁高利贷行为,也可以形象的称为"高利贷罪"。利率适当的民间借贷行为,属于金融借款有益的补充,不可能也不会一棍子打死。

(三)对"情节特别严重"的理解

再次,对于"情节特别严重",是在"情节严重"的基础上,放贷数额、所得数额或放贷对象人数增多。具体而言,以超过36%的实际年利率非法放贷,有下列情况之一的构成"情节特别严重":(1)个人非法放贷数额累计在1000万元以上的,单位非法放贷数额累计在5000万元以上的;(2)个人违法所得数额累计在400万元以上的,单位违法所得数额累计在2000万元以上的;(3)个人非法放贷对象累计在250人以上的,单位非法放贷对象累计在750人以上的;(4)造成多名借款人或者其近亲属自杀、死亡或者精神失常等特别严重后果的。

二、情节加重、金额减少的亦可构成犯罪

根据《意见》第3条的规定,存在下面两种情况之一,非法放贷数额、违法所得数额、非法放贷对象数量"接近"本意见第二条规定的"情节严重""情节特别严重"的数额、数量起点标准的,就可以认定为犯罪,并在相应量刑区间量刑。两种情况为:(1)2年内因实施非法放贷行为受过行政处罚2次以上的;(2)以超过72%的实际年利率实施非法放贷行为10次以上的。所谓的"接近",一般应当掌握在相应数额、数量标准的80%以上。

三、牵连行为的罪数与量刑

《意见》第6条第1款规定,为从事非法放贷活动,实施擅自设立金融机构、套取金融机构资金高利转贷、骗取贷款、非法吸收公众存款等行为,构成犯罪的,应当择一重罪处罚。由于上述几种犯罪都属于破坏金融管理秩序罪,并且是为非法放贷服务的,与非法放贷罪属于牵连犯,因此只需要择一重罪处罚即可。

《意见》第6条第2款规定,为强行索要因非法放贷而产生的债务,实施故意杀人、故意伤害、非法拘禁、故意毁坏财物、寻衅滋事等行为,构成犯罪的,应当数罪并罚。设立非法放贷罪保护的法益是金融管理秩序,为了索要借款,实施故意杀人等行为的,就会侵害到受害人的生命、财产等法益,这些法益不可能被金融管理秩序这个法益所吸收,因此,对于索要借款过程中的这些犯罪行为,要进行单独的定罪处罚,与非法放贷罪实行数罪并罚。

《意见》第6条第3款规定,纠集、指使、雇佣他人采用滋扰、纠缠、哄闹、聚众造势等手段强行索要债务,尚不单独构成犯罪,但实施非法放贷行为已构成非法经营罪的,应当按照非法经营罪的规定酌情从重处罚。也即是说,如果索要借款过程中的滋扰、吵闹等行为,尚不单独构成非法拘禁、寻衅滋事、非法侵入住宅等犯罪的,那么就无法按照第2款单独定罪,此时这些情节就作为量刑情节,存在这些情况的,要酌情从重处罚。

四、黑恶势力非法放贷的特别规定

目前社会上存在大量的通过纠集、指使、雇佣他人采用滋扰、纠缠、哄闹、聚众造势等手段强行索要债务的行为,也存在一些造成借款人或者其近亲属自杀、死亡或者精神失常等严重后果的情况,因此《意见》的出台是有针对性。高利贷行为的另一个特点,就是和黑恶势力相结合,黑恶势力经常是高利贷的放贷人。针对这一现实情况,《意见》第7条对黑恶势力放高利贷做出了特别的规定。

《意见》第7条第1款规定:有组织地非法放贷,同时又有其他违法犯罪活动,符合黑社会性质组织或者恶势力、恶势力犯罪集团认定标准的,应当分别按照黑社会性质组织或者恶势力、恶势力犯罪集团侦查、起诉、审判。也就是说,非法放贷罪和黑社会犯罪是要分别定罪处罚的,不会相互吸收。

《意见》第7条第2款规定,黑恶势力非法放贷的,相应的"情节严重"和"情节特别严重"的认定标准要降低。即:黑恶势力非法放贷的,据以认定"情节严重""情节特别严重"的非法放贷数额、违法所得数额、非法放贷对象数量起点标准,可以分别按照本意见第二条规定中相应数额、数量标准的50%确定;同时具有本意见第三条第一款规定情形的,可以分别按照相应数额、数量标准的40%确定。由此可见,黑恶势力放贷的,除了要数罪并罚以外,构成非法放贷罪的认定标准也降低了,这样对规制黑恶势力放贷有更大的威慑作用。

五、溯及力问题

刑法适用时,采用"从旧兼从轻"原则,一个新的行为被规定为犯罪后,是要严格限制其溯及力的。那么针对《意见》发布之前的非法放贷行为,是否要以非法放贷罪论处呢?

根据《意见》第8条的规定:"本意见自2019年10月21日起施行。对于本意见施行前发生的非法放贷行为,依照最高人民法院《关于准确理解和适用刑法中"国家规定"的有关问题的通知》(法发〔2011〕155号)的规定办理。"根据"法发〔2011〕155号"《通知》第3条的规定:各级人民法院审理非法经营犯罪案件,要依法严格把握刑法第二百二十五条第(四)的适用范围。对被告人的行为是否属于刑法第二百二十五条第(四)规定的"其它严重扰乱市场秩序的非法经营行为",有关司法解释未作明确规定的,应当作为法律适用问题,逐级向最高人民法院请示。

也就是说,由于"其它严重扰乱市场秩序的非法经营行为"属于兜底性条款,某一个行为,是否要纳入该条的规定,在本次《意见》出台之前,是采取的一事一议的态度。而根据《意见》的规定,今后处理《意见》出台前的非法放贷行为,如果拟认定为犯罪的话,还是要层报最高法院请示。根据《意见》出台的背景,可以判断,存在一些不当情节的非法放贷行为更容易被认定为犯罪,即出借人通过纠集、指使、雇佣他人采用滋扰、纠缠、哄闹、聚众造势等手段强行索要债务的,造成借款人或者其近亲属自杀、死亡或者精神失常等严重后果的,黑恶势力非法放贷的,都更容易被认定为犯罪。

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