China: "区块链"现行法律及合规概览(下)

Last Updated: 5 November 2019
Article by Aaron Yizhou Deng
Most Read Contributor in China, October 2019

(本文是《"区块链"现行法律及合规概览》(上)的下篇)

四、基本法律

(一)《刑法》

《刑法》的下列罪名可能适用于区块链服务提供者或使用者:

1. 《刑法》第二百五十三条之一规定了"侵犯公民个人信息罪",是指非法出售、提供公民个人信息,包括窃取或者通过履职获取个人信息并出售或向外提供,情节严重的行为;构成本罪的,法定最高刑为七年有期徒刑 1

2. 第286条之一规定了"拒不履行信息网络安全管理义务罪"。该罪主体为"网络服务提供者",客观表现为拒不履行法定的维护网络安全义务,经主管机关责令仍不采取措施,导致违法信息大量传播、用户信息泄露造成严重后果、刑事案件证据灭失等严重后果的行为。该罪法定最高刑为三年有期徒刑 2

3. 第287条之一规定了"非法利用信息网络罪",是指利用信息网络,为了实施诈骗、传授犯罪方法等违法犯罪活动而设立网站、为实施诈骗而发布有关信息的行为,法定最高刑为三年有期徒刑。

4. 第287条之二规定了"帮助信息网络犯罪活动罪",是指明知他人利用信息网络实施犯罪,仍为其提供互联网接入、网络存储等技术支持,或者提供广告推广、支付结算等帮助,情节严重的行为,法定最高刑为三年有期徒刑。

5.《最高法、最高检关于办理侵犯公民个人信息刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》,首先明确了"公民个人信息"的定义,特别强调以"电子或者其他方式记录"的特定自然人身份或个人活动情况的信息;其次解释了""违反国家有关规定"也包括违反部门规章的规定;对"提供公民个人信息"的解释还特别强调了"通过信息网络"向特定人提供信息的情形。

(二)《民法总则》

1. 第111条从民法角度设立了自然人个人信息安全保护制度,禁止非法收集、使用、加工、传输个人信息。结合《民法总则》第179条"承担民事责任的方式"及《侵权责任法》相关内容,在公民个人信息受侵害时,有权提出民事救济,要求侵权人停止侵害、消除影响、恢复名誉、赔礼道歉、赔偿损失(包括精神损失)及支付违约金。

2. 第127条原则性地规定了网络财产的保护:"法律对数据、网络虚拟财产的保护有规定的,依照其规定。"

另外,《消费者权益保护法》29条规定了经营者收集、使用消费者个人信息的原则、方式及保密义务,其措辞同下文《全国人大常委会关于加强网络信息保护的决定》。

五、信息产业专门法律

(一)《网络安全法》

区块链作为互联网技术的升级版,应当遵守《网络安全法》。该法与区块链相关的主要条款如下:

第10条对网络建设方或运营方维护网络安全提出总体要求 3

第三章(第21条至第39条)规范"网络运营安全",主要相关条款有:

第22条规定收集用户信息需要征得其同意,还要遵守国家其他法律、行政法规关于个人信息保护的要求。第23条是国家标准强制适用及安全监测要求,适用对象为"网络关键设备和网络安全专用产品"。第24条是关于终端用户网络实名制的要求。第37条要求境内信息向境外提供之前进行安全评估。

第四章(第40条至第50条)规范 "网络信息安全",主要相关条款有:

第41条规定网络运营者使用个人信息的原则:首先要获得被收集者同意,其次要公示收集、使用的规则,以及明示收集、使用信息的目的、方式和范围,最后要总体上贯彻"合法、正当、必要的原则"。

第43条则规定了网络运营者应个人要求删除或更正个人信息的义务。第46条禁止任何人利用网络从事与违法犯罪相关的活动。第47条要求网络运营者及时、适当处置网络违法信息。第49条要求网络运营者建立和畅通投诉、举报途径。

(二)《电子商务法》

第9条对"电子商务经营者"进行了定义,是指通过互联网等信息网络从事销售商品或者提供服务的经营活动者;该条还定义了"电子商务平台经营者"。区块链运营者也是通过点对点信息网络提供相关信息服务,因此亦可受《电子商务法》规范。

第23条同样规定了经营者保护用户个人信息的强制性义务,而第25条则保障相关政府部门要求经营者提供用户个人信息的权力。第24条规定用户信息查询、更正、删除、注销的权利及经营者对应的义务。第41条至45条规定了平台经营者保护知识产权的义务及具体内容。

(三)《电子签名法》

第8条规定,审查电子证据真实性的主要考量因素包括生成、储存或者传递数据电文方法的可靠性,以及保持内容完整性方法的可靠性。根据区块链理论,其具有不可篡改、不可消除和伪造的特点,说明一般情况下区块链存贮的数据具有真实性,这对于相关司法实践将产生重大影响,以区块链存贮的电子数据作为证据的司法采信率必将大为提升。该法第16条至26条还规范了电子认证行为。

(四)2000年12月28日《全国人大常委会关于维护互联网安全的决定》

该决定首先将侵入国防、敏感领域计算机系统、编制传播计算机病毒、利用网络造谣、诽谤或危害国家安全、利用互联网销售伪劣产品、侵害知识产权,以及非法截获、篡改、删除他人电子信息侵害个人权益和隐私等行为入罪。除刑法制裁外,还规定了治安管理处罚措施。

(五)2012年12月28日《全国人大常委会关于加强网络信息保护的决定》

该决定明确了国家保护个人身份信息及隐私的原则,确立了网络服务提供者收集、使用个人信息的原则、方式及保密义务,明确了对违法信息处置的原则,规定了网络实名制、个人请求更正、删除个人信息的权利及举报、控诉权。该决定是诸多其他相关法律相关条款的立法渊源,例如上文提到的《网络安全法》第41条、2013年修订的《消费者权益保护法》第29条等。

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Footnotes

1 《刑法》第253条之一:"违反国家有关规定,向他人出售或者提供公民个人信息,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金;情节特别严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。 违反国家有关规定,将在履行职责或者提供服务过程中获得的公民个人信息,出售或者提供给他人的,依照前款的规定从重处罚。 窃取或者以其他方法非法获取公民个人信息的,依照第一款的规定处罚。 单位犯前三款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照各该款的规定处罚。"

2 网络服务提供者不履行法律、行政法规规定的信息网络安全管理义务,经监管部门责令采取改正措施而拒不改正,有下列情形之一的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处或者单处罚金: (一)致使违法信息大量传播的; (二)致使用户信息泄露,造成严重后果的; (三)致使刑事案件证据灭失,情节严重的; (四)有其他严重情节的。 单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照前款的规定处罚。 有前两款行为,同时构成其他犯罪的,依照处罚较重的规定定罪处罚。

3 《网络安全法》第十条:建设、运营网络或者通过网络提供服务,应当依照法律、行政法规的规定和国家标准的强制性要求,采取技术措施和其他必要措施,保障网络安全、稳定运行,有效应对网络安全事件,防范网络违法犯罪活动,维护网络数据的完整性、保密性和可用性。

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