China: 政府行为能否成为开发商逾期交房的免责事由

Last Updated: 24 September 2019
Article by Xu Chengwen and Liang Jun
Most Read Contributor in China, September 2019

一、精装修房不达标赔偿纠纷大量产生的社会背景

2017年政府开启了新一轮房地产调控,全国各地出台了多项调控限价的政策。随着各地调控政策的升级和实施,市场上精装修房越来越多,毛坯房越来越少。究其原因有三方面:

(一)政府积极推动商品房的精装修交付

开发商对商品房统一装修后交付,能节省社会资源,避免二次浪费和污染,有利于环境保护,政府多年以来一直在积极推动。1999年国务院发布《关于推进住宅产业现代化提高住宅质量的若干意见》(国办发199972号)提出"加强对住宅装修的管理,积极推广装修一次到位或菜单式装修模式";2008年住房和城乡建设部发布《关于进一步加强住宅装饰装修管理的通知》(建质2008133号)明确提出"要逐步达到取消毛坯房,直接向消费者提供全装修成品房的目标"。

(二)开发商为了保障其利润也积极推广精装修房的销售

土地价格上涨、人工成本上涨、建筑材料上涨(特别是砂石价格的快速上涨),调控限价之下,房屋价格却不允许相应上涨,开发商的利润无法得到保障。开发商为保障其利润,普遍采取毛坯精装分离的销售方式,用体现毛坯价格的合同来通过房产管理部门的网签和备案,用精装修的价格来保障其利润。

(三)业主关心房屋精装修能否达到合同约定的标准

安居才能乐业,开发商统一装修,能节省业主的时间和精力,却难以满足业主个性化的需求。开发商主导房地产市场的情况下,业主很多情况下只能被动选择。房价"居高不下"的今天,买房对大多数家庭来说,都是一笔巨大的开销,很多家庭穷尽两代人的积蓄才能买得起一套房。所以,业主及其家庭成员格外关心房屋的质量、房屋装修是否达标。

因此,房屋的精装修是政府推广、开发商热衷、业主关心的大事。实务中开发商为规避政府的调控限价政策,将部分房价转移到精装修上,由于合同约定的精装修价款中包含部分房价,减去这部分房价后,剩下的才是实际的装修款。如果交付给业主的房屋未达到合同约定的装修标准,就为业主和开发商间的装修纠纷埋下了隐患。所以几乎每次关于精装修房纠纷的司法判决,都会引起社会的广泛关注。笔者根据本团队的实务经验及近年三十多个司法判例,对精装修房不达标差价赔偿问题作法律评析。

二、毛坯精装一体销售,如在合同中明确约定了装修标准(单价或总价),经工程造价鉴定,实际交付的装修标准远低于合同约定的装修标准,司法实践中业主可以要求开发商赔偿装修差价。

毛坯精装一体销售即毛坯精装约定在同一个合同中,合同的主体只有开发商和业主。精装修不达标,业主要求开发商赔偿装修差价的纠纷案例中,最著名的莫过于南京中院和西安中院的司法判例。

南京江宁区富力城的19位业主 1认为开发商南京富力房地产开发有限公司(以下简称"富力公司")实际交付的房屋装修远没有达到合同约定的4500元每平方米的装修标准(法院认为"商品房预售方案"中4500元每平方米的装修单价应作为合同内容),遂起诉开发商富力公司,提出富力公司赔偿装修差价、按照样板房标准整改等诉求。这一系列案件历时四年经历一审、二审、再审,一审仅判决开发商对房屋的质量瑕疵进行维修,不赔偿装修差价,二审维持原判决。再审南京市中级人民法院(以下简称"南京中院")判决开发商赔偿19位业主装修差价从16多万元到18多万元之间,根据房屋面积大小每个业主获得赔偿的具体金额不同。

西安市长安区富力城十几位业主与开发商西安保德信房地产开发有限公司(以下简称"保德信公司")纠纷中 2西安市中级人民法院(以下简称"西安中院")也判决开发商保德信公司赔偿相应的装修差价,而且法院认为保德信公司作为一家以房地产开发为营利方式的公司,不应该在装修工程上获取高额利润。

此类纠纷中,业主最重要的举证责任在于证明:开发商实际交付的装修标准低于合同约定的装修标准,通过对房屋装修工程造价进行鉴定来实现。另一个重要问题是实际装修面积的计算,实际装修面积应当以套内面积(实际使用面积)计算,而不是以建筑面积(建筑面积=套内面积+公摊面积)计算。

在南京富力城的纠纷案件中,经过第三方专业工程造价鉴定机构的鉴定,按套内面积计算每平方米的装修造价鉴定金额为2526元,远低于合同约定的按建筑面积计算每平方米4500元的装修标准,南京中院经折算认定按建筑面积计算每平方米的装修单价为2375元,进一步低于合同约定的每平方米4500元的装修标准。在西安富力城的纠纷中,法院委托第三方专业评估机构对涉案房屋的装修价值进行鉴定,经过鉴定按建筑面积计算每平方米的装修价值为1990.53元,远低于合同约定的按建筑面积计算每平方米3000元的装修标准。每平方米的装修差价,并不是直接用合同约定的装修价格,减去鉴定出的实际装修价格,还要综合考虑开发商的合理成本、合理利润等实际因素。南京中院和西安中院都是酌情确定装修差价,并最终判决开发商按法院酌情确定的装修差价的总额赔偿给业主。

三、毛坯精装分离销售,如在体现精装修价格的合同中明确约定了装修标准(单价或总价),经工程造价鉴定,实际交付的装修标准远低于合同约定的标准,司法实践中业主可以要求开发商和装修公司共同赔偿装修差价。

毛坯精装分离销售,是指毛坯房价和精装修的价格分别体现在两个合同中,毛坯房的价格体现在《商品房买卖合同》中,合同主体是开发商和业主,精装修的价格体现在《委托装修合同》中,合同的主体是装修公司和业主。开发商为规避政府的调控限价政策,普遍采取毛坯精装分离销售的方式。《委托装修合同》是按开发商的要求签订,装修公司也是由开发商指定,甚至有些《委托装修合同》中装修款也是按开发商的要求支付。(实践中也存在《委托装修合同》中合同的主体是开发商和业主的情况,此种情况与毛坯精装一体的情况类似,合同主体没有变化。)

《商品房买卖合同》中毛坯的价格符合政府调控限价政策的规定,可以顺利在房地产主管部门网签和备案。《委托装修合同》中每平方米精装修的单价和总价都很高,而且是按建筑面积计算总价。精装修价格更多体现了房价的涨价部分,开发商试图通过这一操作规避限价政策的限制及相应的法律风险。据报道有些城市的楼盘"报价3000元的装修标准,一般才400元—500元的成本,能做到1500元的已经是相当有良心了" 3

毛坯精装分离销售,《委托装修合同》合同主体虽然是装修公司和业主,如精装修不达标,司法实践中一般可以要求开发商和装修公司共同赔偿装修差价。理论上根据合同的相对性原则,如业主认为精装修没有达到合同约定的标准,只能向装修公司主张赔偿装修差价。司法实践中可以将开发商和装修公司作为共同被告起诉至法院,要求开发商和装修公司共同向业主赔偿装修差价。深圳市南山区映月湾花园业主与开发商、装修公司之间的纠纷中 4,业主与开发商深圳市地业房地产有限公司(以下简称"地业公司")签订了《深圳市房地产买卖合同》后,又根据开发商的要求与装修公司签订了《家居装饰装修工程施工合同》。业主入住后发现房屋装修存在质量问题,遂将开发商和装修公司一起诉至法院。开发商始终坚持认为装修合同独立于《深圳市房地产买卖合同》,开发商不是装修合同的主体,不是案件的适格被告。但法院认为,开发商销售涉案房屋时以"精装"进行宣传,且开发商指定装修公司,指定装修内容,开发商是案件的适格被告。本案装修纠纷属于房屋买卖关系的范畴,开发商对业主赔偿后,可以根据其与装修公司的合同,向装修公司追偿。一审法院遂判决开发商地业公司承担业主的各项损失,二审法院维持原判。

四、如双方没有在合同中明确约定装修标准,装修标准仅体现在开发商的销售广告中,司法实践中业主需先证明销售广告是合同内部的组成部分,否则业主的诉求难以得到法院的支持。

广东惠州大亚湾海韵雅苑小区业主与其开发商惠州大亚湾美泰诚房地产开发有限公司商品房预售合同纠纷中 5,3000元每平方米的装修标准仅现在开发商的销售广告中,而未体现在双方签订的《商品房买卖合同》。广西南宁地区的案例顿某与广西泳臣房地产开发有限公司商品房销售合同纠纷中 6,3000元每平方米的装修标准也是体现在开发商的销售广告中,而未体现在双方签订的《商品房买卖合同》。

广东省惠州市中级人民法院(以下简称"惠州中院")和广西壮族自治区南宁市中级人民法院(以下简称"南宁中院")均认为涉案开发商的销售广告不是合同内部的组成部分。惠州中院认为涉案的销售广告只具有宣传、推广的功能,起到吸引潜在购买者的作用,不是购买者作出购买决定的主要原因,且对于3000元每平方米的装修问题业主未能提供相应的证据证明装修价值。惠州中院遂维持驳回业主诉讼请求的一审判决。

南宁中院认为双方对销售广告有约定应从约定,无约定方从法定,双方已在《商品房买卖合同》补充协议对广告进行约定"销售广告仅供参考,不作为具体承诺",房屋的装修标准应以《商品房买卖合同》及补充协议为准,且业主未能证明房屋装修价值未达到合同约定标准。南宁中院同样维持驳回业主诉讼请求的一审判决。

五、对精装修房不达标赔偿纠纷司法判例的思考

(一)开发商和业主对"工程造价鉴定"的态度截然不同

开发商普遍认为"工程造价鉴定"没有充分考虑开发商的合理成本、合同利润等实际情况,其合理性有待商榷,通过工程造价鉴定计算成本确定装修差价的方式不具有普遍的指导意义。

对负有举证责任,手中证据有限的业主来说,装修工程造价鉴定是一个有力的证据。业主手中的证据一般都是合同、付款凭证、装修现场照片等,仅凭这些难以达到其证明的目的。不论各方对"工程造价鉴定"的看法如何,对业主来说没有这份证据,业主将直接面临举证不能的不利后果。

(二)开发商和业主对合同约定装修价格的真实意思理解不同

开发商认为在调控限价之下,合同约定装修价格双方的真实意思是装修款包含了部分房款。只有将部分房款转移到装修款上才能顺利通过网签和备案,才能顺利为业主完成买卖手续。

业主则认为合同约定装修价格并未写明包含房款,没有相反证据情况下应当就是装修价格。开发商应当根据合同约定的装修标准对房屋进行装修,否则就是违约。

司法实践中法院一般会综合考虑双方的举证情况和市场同类房屋价格参考,对双方的真实意思做出判断。

(三)司法判例引发群体诉讼的可能

南京富力城业主与开发商关于精装修的纠纷,南京中院再审判决后,据报道南京9家大型房地产开发商马上联名出具《关于依法维护精装修交易稳定避免恶意诉讼造成群体诉讼的紧急报告》"上书"江苏省高院院长。开发商普遍担心南京地区其他楼盘的业主,看到前面的业主起诉开发商后能拿回部分装修差价,也会纷纷效仿起诉开发商要求赔偿装修差价,从而引发大规模的群体诉讼。西安富力城的部分业主 7就是在中国裁判文书网上看到同小区的业主起诉开发商获得装修差价赔偿后,才开始起诉开发商。六、结语

通过对上述司法判例的分析,笔者认为:一旦发生精装修不达标的纠纷,对开发商来说,开发商应当举证证明其对房屋的设计、装修已达到了合同约定的标准,或者证明装修款中包含部分房价。开发商应当提供《室内装修设计合同》《建筑装饰工程施工合同》《精装工程结算书》、支付工程款的凭证和发票等证据。目前对业主来说,进行装修工程造价鉴定才能实现证明目的。如开发商不能证明装修已达到或接近合同约定的标准,也不能证明装修款中包含部分房价,开发商应当承担举证不能的不利后果,赔偿装修差价。

即使开发商确实存在各项成本上涨的客观因素,导致部分上涨的房价转移到精装修上。如果不要求开发商赔偿装修差价或要求开发商承担其他违约责任,相当于默认了开发商变相涨价,开发商完全突破和规避了政府的调控限价政策,同时广大业主的合法权益也无法得到保障。

文中引用:

1 江苏省南京市中级人民法院(2017)苏01民再1号、2号、3号、4号、5号、7号、8号等19份再审民事判决书。

2 西安市中级人民法院(2015)西中民二终字第01532号民事判决书。西安市中级人民法院(2016)陕01民终2077号、(2017)陕01民终4586号等民事判决书。

3 网易房产:《一大批精装房不达标?预防收房变维权,你要关注这个》,http://cd.house.163.com/17/0807/16/CR8GTK9E02241EF1.html,2017.8.7。

4 广东深圳市中级人民法院(2015)深中法房终字第1923号。

5 广东省惠州市中级人民法院(2016)粤13民终1421号、1422号、1423号、1424号、1425号、1426号等13份民事判决书。

6 广西壮族自治区南宁市中级人民法院(2015)南市民一终字第360号民事判决书。

7 西安市中级人民法院(2017)陕01民终4586号民事判决书。

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You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions