China: 被关押近一年的"诈骗重犯",如何无罪走出看守所?

Last Updated: 13 August 2019
Article by King & Capital Law Firm

  合同诈骗,涉案金额2000多万,一旦被定罪很有可能就是无期徒刑。这样的后果,对于刑事辩护律师来说,既是一种巨大的压力,也是一种无形的动力。

  近日,京都律师事务所翁小平、刘记辉律师共同办理的某房地产销售代理企业负责人销某(化名)涉嫌合同诈骗一案,经过精细有效的辩护工作,成功获得检察机关不予起诉的结果。涉案金额2000多万的"诈骗重犯",在被关押近一年后,终于以"无罪之身"走出看守所,重新回到亲人和朋友身边。

案情要点

  销某是一家房地产销售代理公司的负责人,多年前,该公司在当地代理了一个新开发楼盘的销售工作。但是,由于地段等原因,最初的销售情况并不理想,而且开发商给的代理费用也不高。在这种情况下,基于开发商等各方面的压力,销某开始到处"取经",最后确定了一种"电商优惠方案",即收取3万、5万不等的电商渠道费用后可以打折冲抵7万、10万不等的购房费用,以此来吸引购房人。

  多年后,公安机关指控:销某在未获得开发商授权且明知期房备案价格的情况下,私自决定在备案价格基础上加价对外宣传销售,同时采用团购优惠活动的方式将房价最终控制在网签价格的范围内,使购房人在交纳正常房款的同时还要向销某公司交纳活动款,销某等人将该活动款据为己有。

本案非常典型,客观来说,也确实反映出了房地产销售行业中的一些乱象。但是,这样的行为是否真的构成了公安机关所指控的合同诈骗罪?这是一个值得深入探讨的问题。以至于,我们在看守所会见的时候,值班民警都发出了这样的疑问:替别人卖房子怎么还把自己卖成了诈骗犯?

争议焦点

接受委托后,我们第一时间会见了当事人,全面了解案件的背景情况,随后又详细审阅了案卷材料,结合调查走访情况,最后梳理出了本案的疑点和可能的"争议焦点":

  

2.本案部分涉案争议已经通过民事诉讼的方式得到解决,公安机关再次以刑事犯罪介入侦查,是否合法?依据何在?

  

3.本案中是否存在合同关系?有几个合同关系?合同主体各方都是谁?

  

4.本案是否存在诈骗行为?即便存在诈骗行为,到底是"民事欺诈"还是"刑事诈骗"?法律上有没有其他的处理渠道和方案?

  

5.认定"诈骗"数额2000多万的证据是否达到事实清楚、证据确实充分的证明标准?

  

6.如果最终要认定犯罪成立,是单位犯罪还是个人犯罪?

  成功辩点

  随着"捕诉一体"的推广,对于刑事案件的嫌疑人,只要检察机关批准逮捕了,在审查起诉阶段取保、不起诉的难度越来越大,目前甚至可以说这种可能性几乎为零。

  但是,本案中,经过查阅大量案例、充分分析论证,我们认为在罪与非罪的问题上,不构罪的理由和依据是非常充分的。

  基于这样的判断,针对审查起诉阶段办案机关的"关注重点",我们向检察院提交了近万字的《建议对销某不予起诉的法律意见书》,对相关重点问题进行了全面剖析,提出了本案不符合合同诈骗罪的构成要件,即便存在违规行为也是民事纠纷,甚至可以适用行政手段对其进行处罚,而不应作为刑事犯罪处理的辩护意见。

  一、在案证据显示,销某公司的代理销售方案,事实上经过了开发商负责人的同意许可,未获得授权的说法不能成立。

  二、购房人的购房行为是根据其自身社会经验及对未来房市价值的判断做出的,并不依赖销某公司的加价宣传销售行为,加价宣传行为与所谓的财产损失之间不具有刑法上的因果关系。

  三、不管是对于房地产开发商的委托销售行为还是购房人的购房行为来说,合同目的都已实现,且因房价上涨,购房人均收益颇丰,并无实际损失,因此绝大部分购房人并没有对此提出刑事报案,甚至提起民事诉讼的都很少。且对于多缴纳的活动费用,完全可以通过民事诉讼的方式追回,没有进行刑事追诉的必要。

  四、即便认定销某等人存在加价销售的欺诈行为,也属于价格违法行为,属于行政法调整的范围,且现有行政法规已有一系列的明确规范。刑法作为保护法益的最后手段,应时刻坚持内在的谦抑品质,实无升级对此进行刑事定罪处罚的必要和意义。

  五、在司法实践中,将类似情况的案件作为刑事犯罪处理,根据辩护人查找的结果,尚无先例。

  六、近期党中央高度重视民营企业家合法权益的保护工作,中央和两高的一系列文件也要求严格合同诈骗罪与经济纠纷的界限,准确把握罪与非罪的标准,不能把履行合同中发生的经济纠纷作为犯罪处理。

  除了书面意见,在办案过程中,我们还多次与承办检察官积极、充分沟通,承办检察官最终充分考虑并接受了我们的意见,对销某做出了不予起诉的公正决定。

 办案随笔

  辩护工作应争取在尽早的环节解决问题,这是基本原则。因此,在刑事诉讼的每一个环节,我们都不能掉以轻心、都必须全力以赴。

  在本案办理过程中,有两个小细节,让我们感触颇深:

  一个是第一次会见当事人的时候,由于已经被关押了300天,我们能够感受到,他的内心已经心如死灰,不抱什么希望了,对我们的态度也是冷漠和茫然的。好在,经过我们层层剖析和抽丝剥茧,他已自我放弃的心里呼地一下又燃起了希望的火苗,开始跟我们详细地介绍事情的经过和来龙去脉,为我们找到几个有效且直接的辩点。

  在辩护工作中,我们会经常碰到这样的情形,看完案卷后充满了无力感,甚至毫不怀疑自己的当事人就是有罪的,而当会见完当事人后得到的又是另外一个版本的故事。因此,辩护人不仅要学会独立思考,更要懂得倾听,从当事人的讲述中去发掘辩护的有利因素,毕竟只有亲历者本人才是最了解事发经过的那个人。

  另一个是去检察院案管中心递交法律意见书的时候,当时工作人员看到我们提交了一份厚厚的材料,既好奇又不解,问我们到底提交的是什么东西?怎么这么厚?我们说就是不予起诉申请,该工作人员悠悠地说了一句怎么写这么多啊?!其中夹杂着怎么样的复杂情绪,我们不得而知。但是,第二天当承办人以十分友好的语气告诉我们说意见书收到了,他们非常仔细地研究了,会充分考虑的时候,我们一下就放心了,这是个好兆头!所以,所谓的职业共同体,要赢得相互的尊重,需要建立在各自都有专业操守、尽职尽责的基础上。

  虽然对于最后的结果,我们已经有了较好的预期,但是,当接到家属的电话,告诉我们销某已经从看守所出来的时候,我们还是无法抑制住内心的激动和欣喜。

  辩护律师,肩负着当事人的生命、自由和财产,不管多苦多累,这样的结果就是最好的嘉奖,一切的辛苦和付出都是值得的!也正是这样的成就感,鼓励着我们在艰辛的刑事辩护道路上勇敢地走下去——"行路难!行路难!多歧路,今安在?长风破浪会有时,直挂云帆济沧海。"

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