China: 乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度

Last Updated: 9 July 2019
Article by Zhenli Zhang
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

乌兹别克斯坦共和国地处中亚腹地,是古丝绸之路各种文化的交汇地,是世界著名的旅游胜地之一。乌兹别克斯坦有着悠久的历史文化,文物古迹众多,也是中国"一带一路建设"的重要沿线国家。近年来,乌兹别克斯坦经济实现较快增长,2017年GDP同比增长5.3%,是中亚地区经济发展最快的国家。自乌兹别克斯坦新任总统沙夫卡特·米尔济约耶夫上任后,开始实行对外开放的经济政策。同时,为了吸引外资,乌兹别克斯坦亦开始完善法治方面的建设,完善本国的纠纷解决机制,为外国投资者减轻后顾之忧。仲裁制度,作为解决纠纷的重要手段之一,在乌兹别克斯坦发挥着重要作用。

一、乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度的历史沿革

乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度起步较晚,发展历程较短。乌兹别克斯坦于1992年加入了《华盛顿公约》,1995年10月22日加入了《纽约公约》,自此,乌兹别克斯坦负担起承认和执行其他国家仲裁裁决的义务。但乌兹别克斯坦自加入公约以后,仲裁制度在其本国并未得到有效地发展。2006年迎来了乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度的发展转折点。根据乌兹别克斯坦前任总统卡里莫夫于2006年颁布的"对企业进行法律保护的进一步完善措施"的总统令,乌兹别克斯坦于2007年1月1日颁布了《乌兹别克斯坦共和国仲裁院法》。此后,仲裁院在乌兹别克斯坦境内如雨后春笋般设立起来,仲裁制度得到了迅速发展。

二、乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度的现状

乌兹别克斯坦的仲裁活动主要由2006年10月16日生效的《乌兹别克斯坦仲裁院法》所调整。此外,《乌兹别克斯坦共和国投资法》、《外国投资者权益保障及保护措施法》也是乌兹比克斯坦仲裁活动的重要法律依据。同时,截至2011年1月1日,乌兹别克斯坦共有128家常设仲裁机构,其中最具权威性的仲裁院当属乌兹别克斯坦工商会下设的仲裁院。根据乌兹别克斯坦工商会官方公布的数据,2018年,工商会下设的仲裁院及其分支机构共审理6847件仲裁案件,几乎是2017年审理仲裁案件的三倍,是2016年审理仲裁案件的五倍。可见,通过仲裁解决争议的方式在乌兹别克斯坦日益受到青睐,乌兹别克斯坦自身也在逐渐完善仲裁制度,提高仲裁制度的权威性。

1.仲裁范围及原则

乌兹别克斯坦仲裁院主要解决因民事法律关系引起的纠纷,其中包括企业之间的经济纠纷,但不解决因行政法律关系、家事法律关系和劳动法律关系引起的纠纷。乌兹别克斯坦仲裁院根据乌兹别克斯坦法律及其加入的国际条约,基于合法性、独立性、保密性、仲裁员的公正性、仲裁裁决不超出仲裁请求、辩论性、仲裁双方平等的原则进行仲裁活动。

2.仲裁机构与仲裁员

乌兹别克斯坦仲裁机构分为常设仲裁机构和临时仲裁机构,国家机关不能成为仲裁协议的一方或双方。

常设仲裁机构可以由法人组成,自法人作出设立常设仲裁机构的决议、批准仲裁规则和仲裁员名单之日视为常设仲裁机构设立完成。设立仲裁机构的法人应向仲裁机构所在地的司法机关报送设立文件的副本进行备案。常设仲裁机构应当具备带有仲裁机构名称的抬头纸、公章、结算账户等。但常设仲裁机构的性质并非法人。临时仲裁机构由仲裁协议的双方约定组成,其设立程序也由双方在仲裁协议中约定。在组成临时仲裁机构后,仲裁庭的首席仲裁员或独任仲裁员在仲裁审理前,应当向临时仲裁机构所在地进行备案。

乌兹别克斯坦仲裁员由年满25岁的乌兹别克斯坦公民担任,必须保证仲裁裁决的公正性、与争议本身没有直接或间接的利害关系。独任仲裁员或首席仲裁员应当受过法学高等教育。仲裁员不可以是无民事行为能力人或限制民事行为能力人,或受过刑事处分的前科未消除之人,或是法官、律师、公证员、侦查员、检察官或其他护法机关工作人员因违背执业活动受到刑事处罚的人员。常设仲裁机构的仲裁员通常从仲裁机构的仲裁员名单中选取,临时仲裁机构的仲裁员通常由争议双方根据仲裁协议选定,如争议双方在十五天内未协商一致,则该争议将被移交至有权管辖的法院。

3.仲裁庭审

仲裁庭审根据争议一方或双方的申请启动。启动仲裁的一方应当向仲裁院以书面形式提交仲裁申请,仲裁申请中应当包含申请日期、争议双方的名称(姓名)及地址(住所地)、仲裁请求、案件事实、证据、标的额等,并附带上述材料。仲裁程序的被告有权对原告提起的仲裁裁决进行答辩,亦有权提起反诉。争议双方对自己提出的仲裁请求或反驳承担证明责任。在仲裁庭审过程中,争议双方在表达自身立场、维护自身合法权益方面享有平等的权利,如争议双方无其他约定,则争议双方必须出席仲裁审理。仲裁裁决由仲裁庭根据少数服从多数的方式作出,仲裁裁决的决议部分由仲裁庭当庭作出,在仲裁裁决作出的十日内,仲裁裁决的论证部分应当发送至当事人。仲裁裁决中应当列明裁决作出的日期、仲裁裁决地、仲裁庭的组成、争议双方所在地、仲裁裁决的依据、原告的仲裁请求及被告的反驳等。如果争议双方对仲裁裁决有异议,可在收到仲裁裁决的十日内,向同一仲裁庭提交申请要求作出补充决议,仲裁庭应当在十日内作出补充决议。争议双方亦可在收到仲裁裁决的十日内日要求作出仲裁裁决的法院进行补充解释。

4.仲裁裁决的承认与执行

仲裁裁决的承认与执行往往是仲裁程序中最为重要的部分。仲裁裁决可由当事人根据裁决规定的期限自愿履行。如果仲裁裁决未规定履行期限,当事人应当立即履行。仲裁裁决未被当事人在规定期限内自愿履行的,另一方当事人可向有管辖权的法院申请执行令进行强制执行。执行令的申请应当由当事人自自愿履行期限届满之日起六个月内提出。

执行令被提交到有管辖权的法院后,法院经过审查作出是否颁发执行令的决定。通常在以下情况,法院拒绝颁发执行令:

  • 1.仲裁协议根据法律规定无效;
  • 2.仲裁庭对仲裁协议未规定的争议作出裁决,或者超出仲裁协议的范围进行仲裁;
  • 3.仲裁庭未依据自愿原则、公平原则和公开原则作出仲裁裁决等其他事由。

三、乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度的发展前景

乌兹别克斯坦的法制建设伴随着乌兹别克斯坦经济建设的发展日益完善。仲裁制度在乌兹别克斯坦虽然起步较晚,但发展十分迅速。近年来,乌兹别克斯坦仲裁院受理的案件逐年倍增,足见乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度的权威性在提升,日益受到争议案件当事人的青睐。根据乌兹别克斯坦司法部的官方消息,未来,乌兹别克斯坦将考虑颁布《国际商事仲裁法》并设立国际商事仲裁院,专门解决国际经济纠纷。乌兹别克斯坦仲裁制度的发展一方面体现了乌兹别克斯坦日益完善的法制建设,另一方面也减轻了赴乌投资者的后顾之忧。

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