China: 委托人追认情形下默示规则认定的实践分析

Last Updated: 25 June 2019
Article by Jinchun XIE
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

近年来,我国理财市场呈现出蓬勃发展之势,商业银行或其承销的理财产品逐渐成为炙手可热、受到一般投资者青睐的投资选择。但实践中,由于投资产品紧俏、个别投资客户相对成熟固定等原因,银行有时为追求客户体验而简化办理流程,代理客户办理业务,除投资者必须亲自办理的事项外,部分流程如代签代领投资协议、代签转账代扣委托授权书等,在实践中均存在着受托代办的情形,但由于投资者对理财产品的认知偏差(主要集中于保本与非保本型理财产品性质认知),导致部分投资者可能会事后反悔否认上述(口头)授权事实。在这种情况下,如何认定代理行为是否成立,委托人事后何种行为可视为默示规则下的追认,本文将结合相关立案和司法实践,进行简要分析。

当前,就上述情形下各地法院归类案由有一定的区别,主要涉及金融委托理财合同纠纷、信托合同纠纷、侵权纠纷和财产损害赔偿纠纷这几类案由。案件争议焦点则主要集中在:1.当事人相关行为是否构成追认?2.理财协议是否成立?3.银行是否应当承担责任?

一、沉默能否成为追认的意思表示

沉默在法定条件下可以作为意思表示的一种,即成为默示。《民法总则》第140条规定行为人可以明示或者默示作出意思表示。沉默只有在有法律规定、当事人约定或者符合当事人之间的交易习惯时,才可以视为意思表示。

 

《民法通则》第六十六条规定,本人知道他人以本人名义实施民事行为而不作否认表示的,视为同意;《最高人民法院关于适用<中华人民共和国合同法>若干问题的解释(二)》第十二条亦明确规定:无权代理人以被代理人的名义订立合同,被代理人已经开始履行合同义务的,视为对合同的追认。该两条规定均明确了被代理人默示构成对代理行为追认的意思表示,属法律明确规定。

因此,沉默可以作为追认的意思表示,且有明确的规定。

需要注意的是,《民法总则》虽不再规定"不做否认表示则视为同意",但其也并未排除"默示追认"规则的法律适用,基于《民法通则》目前仍然有效,且相关规定与《民法总则》并不冲突,故《民法通则》依然不应在法院认定中予以排除适用。

二、前述情形下,投资者行为可能被视为默示追认的意思表示情形

默示分为作为的默示和不作为的默示,前者如投资者事后前往银行领取投资理财协议(内含理财产品的全面介绍)而未作表示、受领投资协议后向投资账户中汇入投资本金、收取先期理财收益后用于消费;后者如投资者(于家或办公地点)签收理财协议而未作表示、收悉产品公示短信和收益短信(前期自行办理了账户短信开通功能)而未作表示等,笔者认为上述情形单独或组合后可推定为投资者对代理行为事实和性质的明知,而相关判决也印证了这一点。

在刘某与中国光大银行股份有限公司武汉汉街支行、中国光大银行股份有限公司武汉分行委托理财合同纠纷(案号(2016)鄂01民终1177号中)认定:一、牛某某代为(刘某)申购"广发理财4号"理财产品,事后,刘某亦未对牛某某为其代购"广发理财4号"理财产品的行为作出否认的表示。因此,牛某某与刘某之间构成委托代理关系,由此产生的法律效果直接归属于刘某;二、光大银行汉街支行人为地缩减了理财产品购买流程,也未对牛某某进行充分、明确的风险提示,应当承担与其过错相适应的损失;三、刘某作为购买理财产品的客户,其行为构成商业行为,而非一般个人所从事的消费行为,因而,应当具备较一般民事行为中民事主体更高的谨慎注意义务,其对因投资风险的防范与控制不当所造成的损失应当承担主要部分。

在孙某某诉上海银行股份有限公司长桥支行金融委托理财合同纠纷(案号:(2015)沪一中民六(商)终字第304)中认定:案涉《保险合同》虽出现第一联与第二联(上诉人持有)存在不一致的地方,但上诉人已经签收了相应内容的《保险合同》,既没有提出异议,也没有在犹豫期内提出解除合同的申请。上诉人与银行间的代理行为有效,合同成立。

可见,相关案例并未采信投资者一方的口头陈述,而是根据相关法律规定确立的表意规则,通过其外观行为认定事实。同时,在诸多判例中强调,银行在销售或代销理财产品时须严格遵守《商业银行理财业务监督管理办法》、《中国银监会关于规范商业银行代理销售业务的通知》等法律规定,对投资者进行定期评级,充分、明确的提示风险等。

三、投资者应对受托人存在虚假承诺或越权代理的事实承担举证责任

当然,投资者提起相关诉讼并需要法院对相关投资理财协议效力进行认定的前提是,投资者必须证明银行具有虚假承诺和越权代理的事实,否则从诉讼根基上因举证不利而败诉。

如在周某某与富德生命人寿保险股份有限公司上海分公司、中国工商银行股份有限公司上海市崇明支行金融委托理财合同纠纷上诉案(案号(2017)沪02民终5561号)中,判决认定:周某某主张在其购买系争产品时工行崇明支行向其承诺购买该产品5年后有5万元固定利息,则应对此主张负有举证证明责任,否则其主张不能得到支持。

又如,在孙某某诉上海银行股份有限公司长桥支行金融委托理财合同纠纷(案号:(2015)沪一中民六(商)终字第304号)中,判决认定:现上诉人孙某某以其受到被上诉人上海银行长桥支行的欺诈,故而认为涉案《保险合同》不成立的上诉主张,未能提供充分确凿的证据加以佐证,缺乏事实依据与法律依据,故不成立。

又如,在刘某某与华安证券股份有限公司等金融委托理财合同纠纷(案号:(2017)京0115民初4528号)中判决认定:刘某某陈述程某某作出保本承诺,但其提交的证据不能证明该主张,故该合同有效。

又如,在林某某与李某某、中国农业银行股份有限公司中山沙溪隆都支行金融委托理财合同纠纷(案号:(2017)粤2071民初5250号)判决认定:林某某主张李某某在向其推销涉案基金产品时代表农行中山隆都支行作出保本承诺,但其未能提供证据证明该主张,而购买涉案基金时李某某并没有在农行中山隆都支行任职,而是农行中山大涌支行的职员,林某某对此也是明知的,因此林某某的该项主张与本院查明的事实不相符。

四、投资者发现银行越权代理后有效的救济措施

投资者可在法定期限内行使撤销权,根据《民法总则》第一百五十二条的规定,撤销权系形成权,撤销期间为除斥期间,系真正意义上的"有权不用、过期作废"。

如在周某诉甲银行金融委托理财合同纠纷案——2018年上海二中院发布金融消费典型案例之一,判决明确:李某在得知"XX理财1号"出现亏损的情况下,也未在法律规定的时间内申请撤销合同,应视为其对合同内容的认可。一审法院作出判决驳回了李某的诉请。李某不服提出上诉。在二审中双方当事人达成和解,李某撤回了上诉。

五、银行有效控制法律风险的要点提示

首先,银行应当严格执行法律规定和行业规范,如《中国银监会办公厅关于加强银行业金融机构内控管理有效防范柜面业务操作风险的通知》(银监办发〔2015〕97号)第十一条规定,银行业金融机构应在营业网点现金区实施同步录音录像,录像资料回放应清晰辨别银行员工和客户的面部特征,显示业务办理全过程;录音资料应完整、清晰记录业务办理过程中双方的交流过程。加快推进银行理财产品和代销产品销售录音录像工作,录音、录像资料应能完整客观、清晰可辨地记录业务或产品介绍、相关风险和关键信息提示、客户确认和反馈等重点环节。

其次,以尽量避免将投资理财合同效力认定的主动权交由法院为原则,围绕合同管理、人员管理、告知管理等多环节、多路径的做好客户评级、风险提示、履行通知等工作。

综上,在法律不断完善,金融监管日趋规范的环境下,司法实践对于投资者行为的程序合法性审查也趋于严格,以最大程度地保护投资者的风险知情权和投资决策权,同时通过司法判例有效提示银行业加强内控管理有效防范柜面业务操作风险。

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions