China: 俄罗斯国际商事仲裁程序

Last Updated: 24 June 2019
Article by Zhenli Zhang
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

俄罗斯仲裁制度可分为国内仲裁和国际仲裁。国内仲裁主要由《俄罗斯联邦仲裁(仲裁审理)法》调整,用于规范俄罗斯联邦境内常设仲裁机构、仲裁庭的仲裁活动,主要针对发生在俄罗斯联邦内部的纠纷。而国际商事仲裁主要由《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》调整,用于规范仲裁地在俄罗斯联邦境内的国际商事仲裁,以及部分仲裁地在俄罗斯联邦境外的国际商事仲裁。在中俄贸易往来过程中,国际商事仲裁作为一项重要的替代性纠纷解决方式得到越来越广泛的适用。下文将对俄罗斯国际商事仲裁的程序性问题进行介绍,希望能够使各位读者对俄罗斯国际商事仲裁的申请、审理、裁决等问题有所了解。

一、俄罗斯国际商事仲裁的申请

《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》规定,只要争议双方达成协议,便可将争议一方住所地、合同的主给付义务履行地、争议标的最密切联系地在俄罗斯境外的对外贸易纠纷或其它类型的国际经济纠纷,以及俄罗斯联邦境内的外商投资或俄罗斯联邦的境外投资纠纷,通过俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁程序解决。

俄罗斯国际商事仲裁机构受理当事人之间的商事争议的依据主要是当事人之间自愿达成的仲裁协议。所谓仲裁协议,是指当事人就任何特定法律关系(无论其是否具有合同性质)中产生的或可能产生的争议提交仲裁裁决的协议。其形式既包括合同中的仲裁条款,也包括单独的仲裁协议书。仲裁协议应当以书面形式订立。根据《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》,以下几种形式皆符合书面订立的形式要求:(1)协议载于当事方之间签字的文件中;(2)协议载于当事人之间往来的书信、电传、电报或提供协议记录的其他电讯手段中;(3)在申诉书和答辩书的交换中一方当事人声称有协议而另一方当事人未予否认;(4)书面合同中对载有仲裁条款的一项文件的援引。

《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》第8条规定:"如果当事人向法院提起的诉讼的争议是仲裁协议的标的,且一方当事人在不迟于就争议实体提出第一次申诉时要求仲裁的,法院应终止程序并让当事各方付诸仲裁,除非法院认为仲裁协议无效、失效或不能执行。"可见,和中国一样,在俄罗斯有效的仲裁协议能够排除司法管辖权,使仲裁管辖得以优先适用。

二、俄罗斯国际商事仲裁的审理

(一)仲裁庭的组成

《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》规定,当事人双方可以约定仲裁员人数,但该数量应为单数。如果双方在仲裁协议中未约定仲裁员的人数,仲裁员应当为三人。仲裁员的国籍不能成为其丧失仲裁员资格的理由,但当事人另有约定的除外。此外,双方还可对仲裁员的技能、具体的仲裁员名单及仲裁员的选任方式进行约定。

在双方未对仲裁员选任方式另做约定时,由双方各自指定一名仲裁员,并由两名被指定的仲裁员共同任命第三名仲裁员。如果双方或其中一方在三十日内未选定仲裁员,则其中一方可向有管辖权的法院申请指定仲裁员。如果案件由独任仲裁员仲裁,双方对该仲裁员未达成一致,则其中一方也可向有管辖权的法院申请指定仲裁员。有管辖权的法院在任命仲裁员时,应当考虑仲裁协议对仲裁员的要求,以及仲裁员的公正和独立。

拟被任命的仲裁员应当以书面形式告知任何可能对其独立性和公正性引起合理怀疑的情形。如果在仲裁程序进行过程中产生此类情形,仲裁员应当立即将该情形通知双方。当事方在仲裁程序开始后得知此类情形,亦可申请该仲裁员回避。

(二)仲裁审理

仲裁庭依据双方选定的实体法律进行仲裁审理。如双方当事人未进行约定,则由仲裁庭依据冲突规范选定应当适用的法律。俄罗斯国际商事仲裁的审理以庭审为原则,以书面审理为例外,通常实行不公开审理。

国际商事仲裁的审理程序可由双方依据《俄罗斯联邦仲裁(仲裁审理)法》和《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》进行约定;在双方未约定仲裁规则的情况下,仲裁庭应当按照《俄罗斯联邦仲裁(仲裁审理)法》和《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》进行审理。仲裁审理的语言可由双方约定;如双方未作约定,可由仲裁庭予以确定。同时,双方当事人需要将与案件争议相关的所有资料翻译成审理案件时使用的语言,并提交给仲裁庭。在审理过程中,双方当事人在其提交的证据的基础上阐述各自立场,并进行口头辩论。

如果双方当事人未作其他约定,仲裁审理期限自答辩人收到仲裁通知之日起开始计算。仲裁申请人应当在双方协商的期限或仲裁庭规定的期限内提交支持自己仲裁请求的证据,答辩人应当提交反驳申请人主张的证据。同时,一方当事人向仲裁庭提交的所有申请、文件或其他材料均须转交给另一方,仲裁庭在作出决定时所依据的专家意见或其他具有证据价值的文件也必须移交给双方当事人。双方当事人如果需要法院协助调取证据,可向对仲裁事项的有管辖权的法院提出协助取证的申请。

三、俄罗斯国际商事仲裁裁决

仲裁庭在充分考虑合同条款、交易习惯的基础上,按照少数服从多数的原则,作出仲裁裁决。仲裁裁决应当以书面形式作出。除非当事人另有约定,仲裁裁决书应当包含作出仲裁裁决的日期、仲裁地、仲裁庭的组成及其作出裁决的程序、双方当事人的姓名及住所地、仲裁庭职权的法律依据、双方当事人的仲裁请求及反驳陈述、仲裁庭对案件事实的认定及作出该裁决适用的法律依据、仲裁争议的金额及各方应当分摊的仲裁费用等信息。双方当事人自收到仲裁裁决书三十日内,可向仲裁庭申请补正计算、文字印刷等错误,亦可要求仲裁庭对仲裁裁决的具体内容作出解释。仲裁庭亦可在此期间内主动对瑕疵性错误进行补正。如果当事人对仲裁裁决有异议,亦可向对该争议有管辖权的法院申请撤销该仲裁裁决。

在俄罗斯,外国仲裁机构做出的仲裁裁决可依照《纽约公约》和《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》申请执行。《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》第35条规定:"仲裁裁决无论在何国作出,都必须予以承认,并在向有管辖权的法院递交书面申请书的情况下,按照本法35条、36条和俄罗斯联邦程序法的相关规范付诸执行。"因此,只要符合俄罗斯国际商事仲裁法的相关规定,无论是俄罗斯国际商事仲裁机构作出的裁决,还是外国国际商事仲裁机构作出的裁决,在俄罗斯都可被承认和执行。

针对外国仲裁机构管理下的仲裁庭在俄罗斯境内进行的仲裁,《俄罗斯联邦仲裁(仲裁审理)法》进行了特别的规定。根据该法,"外国仲裁机构需依照本法获得行使常设仲裁机构职能的许可,才能在俄罗斯联邦被认定为常设仲裁机构......未被承认为常设仲裁机构的外国仲裁机构管理下的冲裁庭在俄罗斯联邦境内作出的决定,在俄罗斯联邦境内被视为由双方为解决特定争议而组成的仲裁庭作出的仲裁裁决。"也就是说,外国仲裁机构在俄罗斯联邦境内作出的仲裁裁决若想被视为由常设仲裁机构作出的裁决,应当获得俄罗斯联邦政府的许可;否则,仲裁裁决在效力上可能存在一定瑕疵。

根据俄罗斯联邦工商会下属国际商事仲裁院(Международный коммерческий арбитражныйсуд)公布的统计数据,该仲裁院于2015年仲裁的案件为317起,2016年仲裁的案件为271起,2017年仲裁的案件为363起,仲裁案件的数量赶超了斯登哥尔摩仲裁院。在俄罗斯联邦工商会下属国际商事仲裁院2017年仲裁的涉外案件中,34%案件的一方当事人来自独联体国家,33%案件的一方当事人来自欧盟国家,17%案件的一方当事人来自亚洲国家。由此可见,2016年改革之后的俄罗斯仲裁,在解决国际纠纷方面日益扮演着举足轻重的角色,俄罗斯国际仲裁中心的建成指日可待。这对于走出国门向"一带一路"沿线发展的中国企业而言,亦是一份利好消息。

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Mondaq Free Registration
Gain access to Mondaq global archive of over 375,000 articles covering 200 countries with a personalised News Alert and automatic login on this device.
Mondaq News Alert (some suggested topics and region)
Select Topics
Registration (please scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions