China: "私房改造"所涉法律问题研究

Last Updated: 18 June 2019
Article by DeHeng Law Offices
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

一、引论

为落实对农业、手工业及资本主义工商业的社会主义改造,我国政府自1956年开始对城市私有出租房屋进行社会主义改造(以下简称"私房改造")。具体而言,私房改造的主要内容是,对建国以来城市中超过一定数量的私有出租房屋,实行公私合营或由国家进行统一经营租赁(由国家进行统一经营租赁的私有出租房屋,以下简称"国家经租房")。

1966-1976年期间,大量城市私有房屋被占用、接管,在被接管的私房中,除了私有自住房外,还有根据私房改造政策应纳入改造范围的私有出租房。大量被接管房屋因城市建设需要、原房危险或震毁等原因而被拆除、改建,部分房屋至今仍被各类机关、企事业单位和职工占用。

改革开放以后,国家开始落实对私有产权的保护,大量房主及其继承人要求政府返还其私房产权或对其进行妥善安置、腾退其被占用的自住房、清退自住房缴纳的房租和出租房应收的房租并补偿其被拆除的私房价款。在此背景下,针对"文革"中被接管房屋的权属、房屋拆建后的安置及补偿标准以及权利人的法律救济途径等问题,实践中出现了大量争议。由于该等争议系历史遗留问题,处理方式往往散见于一些政策性文件,缺乏统一法律规定,并且受到当时的时代背景和政策变化的影响较多,解决难度往往很大。

本文拟通过对"私房改造"进程中一系列政策及法律文件的梳理,对"私房改造"中房屋权属、拆建补偿、法律救济等主要法律问题作初步探讨,以启共识。

二、"私房改造"的法律基础及国家经租房的所有权归属

"私房改造"是对社会主义"三大改造"政策的具体落实。根据《国务院批转国家房产管理局关于私有出租房屋社会主义改造问题的报告》(1964年1月13日,(64)国房字22号)(以下简称"《国务院批转报告》")的有关规定,"对私有出租房屋进行社会主义改造(以下简称私房改造)的工作,是根据1956年中央批转中央书记处第二办公室'关于目前城市私有房产基本情况及进行社会主义改造的意见'和1958年人民日报刊登的'中央主管机关负责人就私有出租房屋的社会主义改造问题对新华社记者发表的谈话',先后开展起来的。私房改造的形式,除少数大城市对私营房产公司和一些大房主实行公私合营以外,绝大多数是实行国家经租。经租的办法是,凡房主出租房屋的数量达到改造起点的,即将其出租房屋全部由国家统一经营,在一定时期内付给房主原房租20%至40%的固定租金。改造起点的规定,大城市一般是建筑面积150平方米(约合10间房),中等城市一般是100平方米(约合六、七间房),小城市(包括镇)一般是50到100平方米之间(约合三至六间房)。"

由此可见,在"私房改造"进程中,对于符合改造起点的城市私有出租房屋,统一实行国家经营租赁,以类似赎买的办法,在一定时期内给以私人房主固定租金,以实现逐渐改变房屋所有制形式的目的。

针对国家经租房的产权问题,《国务院批转报告》中明确规定,"凡是由国家经租的房屋,除了过去改造起点定的不合理、给房主自住房留得不够和另有规定的以外,房主只能领取固定租金,不能收回已由国家经租的房屋。"而在改革开放以后,《城乡建设环境保护部关于城市私有出租房屋社会主义改造遗留问题的处理意见》([85]城住字87号)(以下简称"《城建部意见》")也再一次明确规定,"过去是符合国家和省、自治区、直辖市人民政府的政策规定,已经纳入社会主义改造的私有出租房屋,一律属于国家所有,由房管部门统一经营管理。"

由此,通过上述两份分属改革开放前后的规范性文件,在法律上明确否认了原房主对国家经租房的所有权,即:符合改造起点,在"文革"前已被纳入私房改造范围内的国家经租房,产权属国家所有,不属于原房主财产及遗产,在"文革"后落实私房政策时,原房主及其继承人不能享受相关政策,不能要求退回房屋或得到其他补偿。

三、"文革"中缓改、漏改的私人出租房所有权归属及处置方式

除在"文革"前已完成"私房改造"并收归国有的城市私有出租房屋,还有一部分房屋虽达到改造起点并符合改造条件,但由于在"文革"中被接管、占用而缓改、漏改。针对该等房屋的所有权归属及处置方式,在"文革"后,尤其是改革开放以后出现了大量争议。

在这方面,我们没有检索到全国性的规范性文件规定,但根据《北京市人民政府关于落实"文革"中接管的私房政策的若干规定》(北京市第七届人民代表大会常务委员会第十九次会议原则批准,北京市人民政府一九八三年三月十一日京政发[1983]38号文件颁发,以下简称"《北京市落实私房政策规定》")第一条之规定,"...在'文革'中接管的属于社会主义改造时缓改、漏改的私人出租房,按国务院一九六四年一月十三日国房字21号[1]文件的规定处理。"该规定中所引述的"国房字21号"文件即上述《国务院批转报告》,而《国务院批转报告》明确规定,"符合私房改造的规定而过去漏改的房屋,应当补改。"

另外,根据《北京市落实私房政策领导小组关于印发<关于落实"文革"中接管的私房政策的若干规定的实施细则>的通知》(市落房办字(1983)第013号,1983年3月20日,以下简称"《小组实施细则》")第二条之规定,"经社会主义根据《北京市落实私房政策规定》改造的原私人出租房产,定租发到1966年9月底,房产已属于国家所有,不存在落实私房政策问题。缓改、漏改的原私人出租房,根据国务院1964年1月13日国房字22号文件的有关精神,产权人生活困难的,应予全部或部分免改,免改的房屋,承认其产权,并按照本细则有关规定处理。产权人生活不困难的,应予补改,并按'文革'前本市私房平均租金(按使用面积计算平均每平方米月租金三角三分)的20%~40%付给产权人五年定租,一次付清,房产即属国家所有。私人出租房的免改或补改均须经市房地产管理局批准。"

上述地方性规定表明,"文革"期间被接管房屋中符合改造条件但"缓改""漏改"的私人出租房,原则上应当补改,即政府按一定标准和比例一次性付给产权人租金,付清租金后房产即归国家所有。但是,如果产权人生活困难的,可以向市房管部门申请免改,市房管部门有权决定是否批准当事人的免改申请。此类规定明确了国家对经租房进行社会主义改造的性质,即以一定期限的定租加以赎买,从而确定了经改造后的国家经租房的产权属性,否认了原产权人对国家经租房的权利主张。

四、"文革"中被接管房屋的拆建补偿原则、主体、程序及标准

除了在"文革"后依然存续的已经改造以及可以补改的国家经租房以外,还有一类在"文革"中被接管的房屋已经因原房危险或建设征用而被拆除、重建,其在物理上已经不再存续。而该类房屋的产权人在"文革"后往往向建设部门、房管部门及用地单位主张房屋产权或房屋补偿款,住房确有困难的产权人还要求相关部门及单位对其进行妥善安置。那么,针对该类其实已经灭失了的房屋又该如何落实政策呢?

根据《北京市落实私房政策规定》[2]及《小组实施细则》[3]的有关规定,除"文革"后应当按照《国务院批转报告》的有关规定进行补改、补改后产权归国家所有的私人出租房外,未纳入"私房改造"的私有出租房及私有自住房在"文革"中被拆除、重建后,相关产权人可以按照以下原则收回房屋或得到相应安置及补偿待遇:

  1. 原房拆除后,就地翻建为平房且由原房主自住的:原房主应向房管部门交纳新旧房屋的差价款,房屋归原房主所有;房主无力交纳的,可按原房蓝图所记载的质量作价补偿房主,房屋归房管部门所有;
  2. 原房拆除后,就地翻建为平房并已由他人租用的:若原房主目前住房无困难,则可按原房蓝图所记载的质量作价补偿房主,房屋归房管部门所有;若原房主住房困难的,可在交纳新旧房屋的差价款后将房屋收回自管,由占房职工所在单位负责腾退;
  3. 原房拆除后,改建为楼房的:可按原房蓝图所记载的质量作价补偿房主,新建楼房归房管部门所有;
  4. 只要房主原自住房被拆除,房主未得安置、现住房有困难的:用地单位或拆除单位应当给予适当解决。

上述补偿义务,在原房屋因建设征用而被拆除的情况下,由建设单位补偿;建设单位已将补偿费付给房管部门的,由房管部门发给产权人。在原房屋因危险而被拆除的情况下,由用地单位补偿;地皮未由单位使用的,由拆房单位补偿。

根据《小组实施细则》第一条[4]之规定,相关产权人主张归还房屋产权或房屋补偿款的,需由产权人提供身份证明、交房收据或其他有关证件。产权人死亡,由其亲属继承遗产的,需先经公证机关公证;产权有纠纷的,可诉请法院处理。

"文革"中被拆除房屋的补偿标准问题涉及两方面的问题:(1)被拆除房屋的私房价款补偿;(2)被接管期间的房屋租金补偿两部分。对此,《北京市落实私房政策规定》和《小组实施细则》分别做出了具体规定。

关于私房价款补偿,《北京市落实私房政策规定》第三条(关于私房房价问题)规定:"本市私房价格由政府统一规定。由于原订私房价格偏低,市政府已批准市房地产管理局(82)第308号《关于调整房屋价格的请示》,适当调高了私房价格,并从一九八二年八月一日起执行。"《小组实施细则》第二十五条(私房作价补偿、计租和发价等有关事项)规定:"一、本市私房价格由政府统一规定。由于原订私房价格偏低,市政府已批准市房地产管理局(82)第308号《关于调整房屋价格的请示》,适当调高了私房价格,并从1982年8月1日起执行。落实私房政策涉及的房屋作价,均按市政府批准的价格掌握。二、凡作价收购或拆除补偿的私房,均按接管时的房屋状况作价。在城区,原则上参照原房蓝图附表所载的条件和质量作价。"

关于房屋租金补偿,《北京市落实私房政策规定》第四条第二款(关于接管期间的租金结算问题)规定:"由房管部门或使用单位收购的私房,以及征用、拆除的私房均按房管部门接管时的房屋状况或私房蓝图所记载的质量作价,并按小修标准结算房租。"《小组实施细则》第二十五条(私房作价补偿、计租和发价等有关事项)规定:"三、凡征用、拆除和收购的私房,对在房管部门管理期间的房租,均按小修标准结算,将应收租金的30%退给房主,房主欠交的房租应如数补足。"第二十七条规定:"应退和应发给房主的租金、补偿费和收购款与房主应补交的修缮费、房屋差价款等原则上要按户一次结清。一、凡发还产权由房主自管的房屋应退的租金,均一次付清;凡收购私房、补偿拆除房屋的房价款和应退的租金,在三年以内分期付清(不计利息),不在京房主的私房收购款和应退租金,可一次付清。分期付款一般按以下金额掌握:(一)一千元以下,当年一次付清;(二)三千元以下,两年付清;(三)三千零一元以上,三年付清。凡应付给房主的价款在一千元以上的,应发给房主领款凭证,按上述金额,分期付给。..."

上述规定表明,针对"文革"期间被征用、拆除和收购等各种形式接管从而已经灭失,无法进行社会主义改造的私房,应补偿给原房主的房价款以1982年经调整后的政府定价为基准[5],并按照房管部门接管时的房屋状况或私房蓝图所记载的质量作价;而针对接管期间应退房租部分,则均按小修标准结算(即按应收租金的45%计收修缮费),将应收租金的30%退给房主,但房主欠交的房租仍应如数补足。

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Footnotes

1  《北京市落实私房政策规定》中对《国务院批转报告》文号的引述与其正式文号存在不一致的情况。经核对《北京市落实私房政策规定》引述的"国房字21号"文件即《国务院批转报告》。为避免歧义,本文对《国务院批转报告》文号的引述仍统一采用"国房字22号"。

2  《北京市人民政府关于落实"文革"中接管的私房政策的若干规定》第五条 关于翻建、改建的私房问题在被拆除的私房中,有相当大一部分是因原房破烂不堪,拆除后原地翻建成平房或改建成楼房。改建成楼房的,可按原房蓝图所记载的质量作价补偿房主,新建楼房归房管部门所有。翻建成平房后仍由房主住用的,房主应向房管部门交纳新旧房屋的差价款;如房主无力交纳,或者翻建后的平房已由他人租用、房主目前住房又无困难的,可按原房蓝图所记载的质量作价补偿房主,房屋归房管部门所有。如房主住房有困难,要求将由他人租用的已翻建的平房收回自管,可在房主交纳新旧房屋的差价款后予以发还。

房主原自住房被拆除,房主未得安置、现住房有困难的,应由用地单位或拆除单位给予适当解决。

3  《北京市落实私房政策领导小组关于印发<关于落实"文革"中接管的私房政策的若干规定的实施细则>的通知》第二十条私房被接管后,因建设征用或房屋危险已拆除的,均应作价予以补偿。属于建设征用拆除的由建设单位补偿;建设单位已将补偿费付给房管部门的,由房管部门发给产权人。属于危险拆除的,由用地单位补偿;地皮未由单位使用的,由拆房单位补偿。

第二十一条房主的自住房在原地翻建为平房仍由房主住用的,在房主补交房屋差价款后,发还房主自管;房主若无力补交房屋差价款,可将拆除原房的房价款发给房主,房屋归房管部门所有。

房主的自住房原地翻建为平房已由他人租用、房主住房不困难的,可将拆除房的房价款发给房主,新房归房管部门所有。房主住房有困难的,由占房职工所在单位负责腾退。

私人出租房被拆除,在原地翻建为平房,房主住房不困难的,可将拆除房的房价款发给房主。新房归房管部门所有。房主住房有困难,要求将翻建后由他人租用的房屋收回自管的,可在房主补交房屋差价款后,予以发还。

4  《北京市落实私房政策领导小组关于印发<关于落实"文革"中接管的私房政策的若干规定的实施细则>的通知》第一条 在"文革"初期,由房管部门或由其他机关、部队、企事业单位接管的私人房产,要确认原产权人的所有权。

确认产权,需由产权人提供身份证明、交房收据或其他有关证件。产权人死亡,由其亲属继承遗产的,需先经公证机关公证;产权有纠纷的,应由当事人诉请法院处理。

5  我们未能通过公开途径检索到本次调价的相关政策文件,即北京市房地产管理局(82)第308号《关于调整房屋价格的请示》,但根据北京市海淀区人民法院"王学平诉北京市住房和城乡建设委员会其他一案"(2014)海行初字第256号《行政判决书》记载,该等文件已经移交北京市档案馆保管。

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  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions