China: 行政复议申请期限的认定

Last Updated: 6 May 2019
Article by DeHeng Law Offices
Most Read Contributor in China, July 2019

杨某于2015年10月向A省政府寄送《行政裁决申请》一份,对某市国土资源局作出的《关于杨某房屋拆迁补偿方案》不服要求裁决,A省政府收到申请转省国土资源厅办理,A省国土资源厅于同月以《告知书》的形式告知杨某,A省裁决制度还未建立,就其提出的三项请求可以根据《中华人民共和国行政诉讼法》第二条和《中华人民共和国行政复议法》第二条的规定,直接向有管辖权的人民法院或行政机关提起行政诉讼或者申请行政复议。杨某不服A省国土资源厅作出的《告知书》向国土资源部申请行政复议,国土资源部经复议维持了A省国土资源厅作出的《告知书》。就A省国土资源厅的告知,杨某未选择诉讼或行政复议,而是选择向当地政府申请协调,协调不成杨某于2016年9月再次向A省政府申请裁决,A省政府又将材料转省国土资源厅办理,A省国土资源厅于2016年11月对杨某的前后两次相同请求作了再次告知。杨某不服,以A省政府不履行法定职责为由提起行政诉讼,经两审,A省高院于2018年2月18日作出终审判决驳回杨某上诉,维持原判,判决中指出,杨某对申请事项不服可以依法提起行政复议。2018年3月6日杨某以对某市国土资源局作出的《关于杨某房屋拆迁补偿方案》不服为由,向A省国土资源厅申请行政复议,复议的三项请求与2015年10月寄送的行政裁决申请三项请求内容一致,A省国土资源厅认为在2015年10月《告知书》中明确告知杨某可以直接向有管辖权的人民法院提起行政诉讼或者向有权机关申请行政复议维护合法权益。杨某最迟也应该在2015年10月就已知晓可以提起行政复议,其复议请求已超过《行政复议法》第九条规定的复议期限,遂作出《行政复议不予受理决定书》。对于杨某的复议请求是否超过期限,有观点认为杨某一直坚持通过,法律途径解决其争议,相应机构未受理及处理其争议属于耽误其起诉或者申请复议期限的正当理由,其通过A省高院判决得知解决其争议的法定途径,可以作为其针对《关于杨某房屋拆迁补偿方案》不服提起行政复议申请期限或者行政诉讼期限的起算时点,并据此认为A省国土资源厅《行政复议不予受理决定书》认定行政复议申请期限起算时点认定错误,杨某申请复议未超过申请期限。

笔者认为,杨某已超过复议期限,理由如下

一、杨某未选择行政复议,而是一直坚持通过行政诉讼途径解决其争议,相应法院未受理及处理其争议不属于耽误申请复议期限的正当理由,即使属于正当理由,复议期限应当继续计算而不是重新计算。

《行政复议法》第九条第二款规定"因不可抗力或者其他正当理由耽误法定申请期限的,申请期限自障碍消除之日起继续计算"。这是行政复议法对发生了法定的意外情况复议申请期限可以延期的规定。根据本款的规定出现上述两种情况耽误了法定申请期限,申请期限自障碍消除之日起继续计算。这里讲的继续计算是指把因不可抗力或者其他正当理由而耽误的期限补足,也就是说在不可抗力或者其他正当理由出现时,申请复议期限处于中止状态,当这些障碍消除后,申请复议期限继续计算,而不是重新计算。

根据国法函[2003]253号 规定"一、公民、法人或者其他组织不服具体行政行为,在法定行政复议申请期限内向人民法院直接提起行政诉讼,人民法院依法裁判应当先申请行政复议、对行政复议决定不服再向人民法院提起行政诉讼,公民、法人或者其他组织申请行政复议时已经超过法定行政复议申请期限的,行政复议机关可以根据行政复议法第九条第二款规定处理,即:公民、法人或者其他组织提起行政诉讼到人民法院生效裁判送达之日的时间,不计入法定行政复议申请期限。二、除前述情形外,公民、法人或其他组织申请行政复议时超过法定申请期限,又没有正当理由的,行政复议机关依法不予受理"。国务院法制办公室经商全国人大常委会法工委同意,作出上述意见。即只有复议前置的案件先提起行政诉讼的时间可以不计入复议期限,其他情形都不属于不计入复议期限情形。

主张复议期限未过的观点认为,"杨某一直坚持通过法律途径解决其争议,相应机构未受理及处理其争议属于耽误其起诉或者申请复议期限的正当理由",如果按照该观点,只要没有进行实质审查的案件都可以认为属于耽误期限的正当理由,这显然不符合法律规定耽误法定期限的本意,同时在行政诉讼和行政复议救济途径都可选择的情况下,杨某未选择行政复议的救济途径,根据《行政复议法实施条例》第二十八条"行政复议申请符合下列规定的,应当予以受理:...(七)其他行政复议机关尚未受理同一行政复议申请,人民法院尚未受理同一主体就同一事实提起的行政诉讼。"之规定,在我国目前法律制度下,选择了行政诉讼就不能再选择行政复议,除非是国法函[2003]253号规定的复议前置情形。本案中杨某因选择行政诉讼耽误的期限不属于国法函[2003]253号规定的情形,即使本案属于法院判决认定的耽误期限的正当理由,也只属于行政诉讼中耽误起诉期限的正当理由,不应是耽误行政复议期限的正当理由。

二、行政复议的起算时点应当以《告知书》告知时间为准,而不应当以省高院终审判决时间为准。

退一步讲,本案即使属于耽误行政复议期限的正当理由,也应当对复议期限进行继续计算,如直接按照省高院终审判决作为行政复议的起算时点重新计算复议期限,不符合《行政复议法》的规定。A省国土资源厅于2015年10月向杨某作出《告知书》,告知其可以直接向人民法院或行政机关提起行政诉讼或者行政复议,杨某对《告知书》不服,向国土资源部申请行政复议,国土资源部复议维持了国土厅作出的《告知书》。行政行为作出即具有拘束力、执行力和确定力,《告知书》和《行政复议决定书》至今未被行政机关或法院判决撤销,合法有效。A省国土资源厅已经告知了杨某救济途径,省高院终审判决对救济途径的论述只是对上述告知内容的重复,并不是新的救济途径告知。在行政机关和法院告知同样的权利救济途径的情况下,行政复议的起算时点以在先的《告知书》告知时间为准,符合《行政复议法》的规定。

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