China: 国际商事仲裁的费用成本

Last Updated: 15 April 2019
Article by Wu Yuhong
Most Read Contributor in China, April 2019

摘要

越来越多 "走出去"的中国企业采用国际商事仲裁来解决国际商事纠纷,因此了解国际商事仲裁费用成本,在进行仲裁前认真考虑筹划费用成本,对参与或可能参与国际商事仲裁的企业和律师是非常重要的。本文对国际商事仲裁费用成本做一个简要的介绍,包括:( 1 )国际商事仲裁费用成本的构成;( 2 )国际商事仲裁期中费用( Interim Payment );( 3 )国际商事仲裁费用的承担等几个方面。

关键词:国际商事仲裁、仲裁费用、仲裁成本

国际商事仲裁有费用成本。虽然在理论上,仲裁一直被宣传为是一种节省费用成本的纠纷解决方式,但在事实上,国际商事仲裁很难算得上是省钱的纠纷解决方式,很多企业在经历了国际商事仲裁后了解到了这一点。根据英国仲裁员协会(CharteredInstitute ofArbitrators)2011年发表的《国际仲裁成本调查报告》,仲裁中一方支出的费用成本平均已超过两百万美元, 1 其他研究报告也给出类似的结论,而且费用成本达到天量级的国际仲裁也屡见不鲜。 2

国际商事仲裁费用高昂有客观原因。在国际商事仲裁中,仲裁各方普遍有着不同的文化、商业和法律背景,使用不同的语言;纠纷常常涉及较大金额;纠纷事实复杂,既有商业因素,也有专业技术因素,有时还有政治因素;纠纷解决可能需要适用多个国家法律以及国际条约。而面临复杂困难挑战,国际商事仲裁中可供采用的有效手段措施却是有限的,尤其是与法院和法官相比,仲裁机构和仲裁员更像是"赤手空拳"。有效的国际商事仲裁很大程度上有赖于纠纷各方解决争议的良好意愿,但在出现纠纷时,可能最缺乏的就是良好意愿。不难看出,控制国际商事仲裁费用成本是一件艰巨的任务,如果不是不可能任务。

使情况更糟糕的是,在不少时候,仲裁费用成本变成实体争议之外的另一个战场。国际商事仲裁没有世界统一的立法规定,而各仲裁机构所提供的仲裁规则往往又只能是原则性的、指导性的粗略框架,加之对仲裁裁决承认和执行的担忧,仲裁庭不得不充分尊重仲裁各方的意愿和要求,这都使得"烧钱"战略成为一种可操作、有时甚至是有效的伎俩。

因此,了解国际商事仲裁费用成本,在进行仲裁前认真考虑筹划费用成本,对参与或可能参与国际商事仲裁的企业和律师是非常重要的。本文拟对国际商事仲裁费用成本做一个简要的介绍,包括国际商事仲裁费用成本的构成、国际商事仲裁期中费用(Interim Payment)和国际商事仲裁费用的承担等几个方面。

一、 国际商事仲裁费用成本的构成

多个国际商事仲裁机构在其仲裁规则中对国际商事仲裁费用的构成做出了原则性规定。 3 大体来说,国际商事仲裁费用有三大组成部分:

1. 支付仲裁机构的费用 4

国际商事仲裁机构通常为其受理的国际商事仲裁提供各类管理支持服务,包括立案管理、仲裁员选任、管理和惩戒、仲裁各类裁决的审核管理、仲裁裁决的支持管理等。虽然大多数国际商事仲裁机构是非盈利组织,但为了支付行政管理成本以维持正常营运,会对仲裁案件收取一定费用。这部分费用通常称为仲裁机构行政管理费用。

2. 支付仲裁庭的费用

该部分费用主要是仲裁员的收费,以及仲裁员在仲裁过程中的合理开支,包括旅行、住宿和食品的开支。该部分费用还包括仲裁庭为案件审理聘请批准的专家和证人的费用以及合理开支,包括旅行、住宿和食品的开支。在一些复杂的大型国际商事仲裁中,为了高效便捷地进行仲裁,仲裁庭还可能聘用案件管理人员或秘书,由此收取相应的费用。另外,仲裁场地和制作仲裁文件也会产生费用。

3. 向仲裁各方聘请的律师和 其他服务支付的费用

多数国际商事仲裁机构对该部分费用只作了概略的定义,即律师费和仲裁各方承担的与仲裁相关的其他费用。但一般来说,该部分费用的主要部分是仲裁各方聘请的律师收取的律师费。由于国际商事仲裁中仲裁各方来自不同国家,仲裁一般涉及多个适用法律以及特定的仲裁规则,仲裁各方聘请数个律师事务所的情况并不少见。该部分费用通常还包括:仲裁各方聘请专家证人和一般证人的费用与开支、律师助理和顾问的费用与开支、公司内部法务的费用与开支、公司管理人员的相应费用与开支。

根据国际商会仲裁院(ICC)的统计, 5 在ICC处理的国际商事仲裁中,仲裁机构费用、仲裁员费用以及律师和其他费用的占比分别为2%、15%和83%(见下图),英国仲裁员协会(CharteredInstitute of Arbitrators)2011年发表的《国际仲裁成本调查报告》也给出了类似统计, 6 行业普遍认为ICC的统计基本反映了国际商事仲裁的收费状况。从上面数据可以看出,国际商事仲裁费用成本的主要部分是律师和其他费用,但仲裁员费用也是需要关注的部分。

二、 国际商事仲裁期中费用

虽然参与仲裁各方最终承担的仲裁费用金额只有在仲裁裁决最终做出后才能确定,但为了确保仲裁机构和仲裁庭能够收到国际商事仲裁当事人应当支付的费用,国际商事仲裁机构多要求支付期中费用(又称预付金,advanceon costs)。以ICC国际商事仲裁为例,仲裁费预付金有以下三个方面:

1. 申请费

在提交仲裁请求同时,仲裁申请人必须缴纳5000美元申请费。否则ICC仲裁院秘书不会将仲裁请求通知仲裁被申请人。该申请费将不退还仲裁申请人,但将计入仲裁申请人之后应当预交的费用。如果仲裁各方要求在仲裁中追加其他方,提出追加要求的一方必须缴纳5000美元申请费。

2. 临时预付金

一般在收到仲裁请求后,ICC仲裁院秘书长将确定一个临时预付金(aprovisional advance),以支付在审理范围书完成之前的仲裁费用。临时预付金由仲裁申请人缴纳,将计入仲裁申请人之后应当预交的费用。在收到临时预付金之前,仲裁院和秘书长通常不会采取实质步骤组建仲裁庭,不会将案件移送仲裁庭。

临时预付金包括:仲裁院行政管理费用、仲裁员最低收费以及仲裁庭可能产生的开支。具体计算基于仲裁申请人的仲裁请求,包括:(1)按照ICC费用表,确定仲裁院行政管理费用的一半;(2)按照ICC费用表,确定仲裁员最低收费的一半,并乘以仲裁员人数;(3)预估直到完成审理范围书之前的开支。一般来说,临时预付金的数额为整个仲裁预付金的25%-35%。

3. 仲裁费预付金

一般在收到答辩状或反申请后,仲裁院可以根据仲裁申请和反申请估算确定整个仲裁需要的仲裁费预付金,仲裁院可以在仲裁程序的各个阶段对预付金数额作出调整。预付金应当由仲裁各方等额承担缴纳。预付金影响仲裁各方对仲裁费用成本的控制,有以下几点特别值得关注:

首先,仲裁中一方可能拒绝支付预付金。如果出现这种情况,按照ICC仲裁规则,另一方有权代替没有支付其预付金份额的一方支付其预付金, 7 而且通常仲裁院秘书也会提请另一方代缴预付金。如果另一方也没有代缴预付金,仲裁院秘书长可以中止仲裁庭的工作,设定一个期限要求缴清预付金,期满仍未缴清预付金的,将视为撤销了相应的仲裁请求。 8 在国际商事仲裁中,一方拒绝支付预付金的情况并非少见,这就需要仲裁中另一方做好代缴预付金的准备,否则仲裁程序将无法继续。尽管代缴的预付金可以在仲裁裁决中追回,但在进行仲裁费用预算准备时应当考虑代缴预付金。

其次,ICC仲裁规则允许仲裁院就仲裁请求和反请求分别设定预付金。 9 这一规定对仲裁各方控制仲裁费用成本有特别意义,主要表现在两种情况:(1)仲裁一方不缴纳其预付金份额的情况;(2)仲裁双方的请求不成比例的情况。

在仲裁中被申请方提起反请求的情况下,如果一方拒绝缴纳其预付金份额,为了继续仲裁,另一方就必须缴纳全部预付金,这包括仲裁请求和反请求的预付金,这必然增加其仲裁费用。为防止上述情况发生,一方可以申请仲裁院对请求和反请求分别设定预付金,而只缴纳自己一方仲裁请求的全部预付金,迫使另一方为其仲裁请求缴纳全部预付金。

在有请求和反请求的仲裁中,请求和反请求可能极不成比例,如仲裁请求的金额为200万,而反请求的金额为1亿,这样必然增加预付金,可能给请求金额低的一方造成难以承受的经济负担。在这种情况下,金额低的一方可以申请仲裁院对请求和反请求分别设定预付金,而只缴纳自己一方仲裁请求的全部预付金,以减轻费用负担。

最后,随着仲裁的进行,基于对案件的进一步了解,或由于未预见到的仲裁程序,仲裁院可能根据情况调整增加预付金。 10 在仲裁院增加预付金的情况下,仲裁中一方可能出于对仲裁程序或审理情况的不满,拒绝缴纳增加的预付金,迫使另一方为了继续仲裁,代其缴纳增加的预付金份额。

总之,在预算仲裁费用时,仲裁各方不能只考虑自己一方应当承担的预付金,而应充分考虑可能增加其费用成本的情况,做出相应准备。

三、 国际商事仲裁费用的承担

通常国际商事仲裁会对仲裁费用的承担做出裁决,也就是说仲裁庭将决定仲裁费用按照什么比例由仲裁各方承担。毫无疑问,这是仲裁各方评估预算仲裁费用、制定仲裁策略以及进行仲裁过程中,应该仔细考虑的重要问题。

国际商事仲裁中就仲裁费用承担做出裁决的主要依据包括:仲裁各方达成的书面仲裁协议、仲裁机构规则、审理范围书、强制性法律规定和其他约定规则。 11

一般来说,仲裁各方可以在合同的仲裁条款、争议产生后各方达成的协议、审理范围书或是其他文件中,对仲裁费用承担进行约定,这是仲裁庭在裁决费用承担时需要考虑的重要依据。但需要特别注意的是,仲裁费用承担约定的有效性可能受相关法律规定的影响。 12 根据ICC的调查,大多数国家接受对仲裁费用承担的约定,一部分国家有条件的接受,还有一些国家禁止此类约定。 13 例如,英国《仲裁法》(1996)和香港《仲裁条例》就强制规定,只有在争议发生后,仲裁各方就仲裁费用达成的约定才是有效的。 14 除了仲裁各方之间的费用安排约定,还有其他与仲裁费用相关约定,比如仲裁由第三方资助的约定,仲裁一方与代理律师的风险代理费约定,这些都会对仲裁费用承担的裁决有影响。

仲裁庭裁决仲裁费用承担的另一重要依据是仲裁机构规则。各国际商事仲裁机构均给予仲裁庭裁决仲裁费用承担的相应权利,并制定了相应的规定。尽管各国际商事仲裁机构对仲裁费用承担所规定的裁决原则不尽相同,但总体来说,"英国方式",即"谁输谁付钱", 15 是目前实践中的主流。 16 另一种原则是"美国方式",即仲裁各方承担各自费用。值得注意的是,仲裁庭在实际运用上述原则时,通常只是以其作为做出仲裁费用裁决的出发点,仲裁庭通常会在综合考量其他因素后,对仲裁费用承担做出适当调整。换句话说,在"英国方式"下,赢得仲裁的一方也可能承担一定费用,而在美国方式下,由一方承担费用也是可能,当然这种可能性比在"英国方式"下要低很多。

正如上面提及,仲裁胜负结果是决定仲裁费用承担的重要标准,但是很多时候,判断仲裁胜负并不容易。这常常是由于争议的复杂性决定的,比如:同一争议中涉及多个案由,既有反请求,又有抵消,涉及多个合同和多方;仲裁过程中增加、撤销、修改和合并仲裁请求;仲裁一方可能在某些请求上获胜,但在另一些请求上失败,或请求金额没有获得全面支持。 17 仲裁庭在判断仲裁胜负时常采用以下几种方式:(1)如果仲裁一方在核心请求或主要请求上获得支持,则有权收回全部合理费用;(2)就每一个请求、每一个争议焦点分别判断;(3)根据请求金额和仲裁庭裁决的赔偿金额,按比例判定胜负。

除了仲裁的胜负结果,仲裁费用是否合理也是决定仲裁费用承担的重要标准。 18 需要注意的是,一般情况下,仲裁庭只对各方产生的律师及其他费用是否合理做出裁定,而仲裁庭的费用则一般假设是合理的。 19 虽然各国仲裁法和各仲裁机构规则没有对合理费用做出明确规定,但通常标准主要看费用和争议金额相比是否合理适当, 20 以及费用是否合理适当产生。仲裁庭会考虑多种因素,包括:提供法律服务的人员数目、费率、专业能力资历是否合理,仲裁各阶段工作量、小时数是否合理,各方产生费用的差异, 21 争议事项对各方的重要性、复杂程度,是否有不必要的、没有依据的请求或反请求,程序的长短和阶段,是否及时撤销没有依据的请求,在出示文件请求和回应上的表现,证人的范围和相关性。 22

仲裁庭就仲裁费用承担进行裁决时,仲裁各方在仲裁过程中是否有不当或不诚信行为是另一个重要因素,有时甚至是决定性因素。多数仲裁机构规则和部分国家法律规定,在决定仲裁费用承担时,仲裁庭可以考虑仲裁各方在仲裁过程中的行为表现。ICC就规定,在进行仲裁费用的裁决时,仲裁庭可以考虑各方是否以便捷和经济的方式进行仲裁。 23 事实上,由于在案件审理过程中仲裁庭所拥有的权利和手段远远小于少于法院,决定仲裁费用承担已成为仲裁庭管理案件审理、控制时间和费用的重要手段。

仲裁庭认定为不当或不诚信的行为可以很广。一般包括了过度的文件要求、过度的法律争论、过度的交叉盘问、推延战术、夸大的仲裁请求 24 、不遵守程序指令、不正当申请临时救济、无正当理由不遵守程序时间表等。还包括蓄意干扰破坏仲裁程序的行为,如违反仲裁协议在法院提起平行诉讼,蓄意造成仲裁裁决不可执行的行为,有意给仲裁员制造利益冲突的行为。向仲裁庭提交虚假证据和虚假陈述肯定是不当不诚信的行为。仲裁中的挑衅行为、缺乏职业礼貌的行为、未经证实的欺诈指控也会被认定是不当不诚信的行为。

四、 结语

国际商事仲裁是国际商事活动中普遍使用的解决纠纷的方式,"走出去"的中国企业也越来越多地使用国际商事仲裁。虽然理论上,仲裁一直被认为是一种节省费用成本的纠纷解决方式,但事实上,国际商事仲裁往往会产生很大的费用成本,在不少时候,仲裁费用成本更成为实体争议之外的另一个战场。因此,了解国际商事仲裁费用成本,熟悉相关规则,对利用国际商事仲裁有效解决纠纷,保护中国企业合法权益,有着非常重要的意义。

本文首次发布在《涉外律师在行动-"一带一路"争议解决特辑》一书中,出版社:法律出版社,出版时间:2018年10月。

Footnotes

1  Chartered Institute of Arbitrators,"CIArb Cost of International Arbitration Survey 2011",Accessed March 27, 2018,https://www.josemigueljudice-arbitration.com/xms/files/02_TEXTOS_ARBITRAGEM/02_Regras_Arbitrais/CIArb_costs_of_International_Arbitration_Survey_Sept_2011.pdf。该调查观察到了国际商事仲裁中不少让人感兴趣的现象。

2 在Yukos Oil Company和俄罗斯联邦的仲裁中,争议总金额高达1140亿美元,仲裁过程长达近10年,仲裁申请人的律师和专家费用达8150万美元,被申请人的律师和专家费用也接近3150万美元。.

3 《ICC仲裁规则》(2012)第38条,《香港国际仲裁中心(HKIAC)仲裁规则》(2013)第33条,《英国伦敦国际仲裁院(LCIA)仲裁规则》(2014)第28条,美国仲裁协会《争议解决国际中心(ICDR)争议解决程序》(2014)的《国际仲裁规则》第34条,《解决投资争端国际中心(ICSID)仲裁程序规则》(2006)第28条,《常设仲裁院(PCA)仲裁规则》(2012)第40条,《斯德哥尔摩商会仲裁院(SCC)仲裁规则》(2010)第43条,《新加坡国际仲裁中心(SIAC)仲裁规则》(2013)第31条,《联合国国际贸易法委员会(UNCITRAL)仲裁规则》(2010)第40条。

4 临时仲裁庭仲裁(ad hoc arbitration)中没有仲裁机构费用。

5  ICC Commission Report, "Decisions on Costs In International Arbitration", ICC Dispute Resolution Bulletin 2015, Issue 2, Accessed March 27, 2018. https://iccwbo.org/publication/decisions-on-costs-in-international-arbitration-icc-arbitration-and-adr-commission-report/。

6 根据CIA2011年《国际仲裁成本调查报告》发表的数据,外部法律费用(External Legal Fees)约占74%,仲裁费用(Arbitral Fees)约占15%。

7 ICC仲裁规则第37.5条规定:"......在任何情况下,如果某一方当事人未能支付其预付金的应付份额,任何其他当事人均有权支付该应付份额。"

8 ICC仲裁规则第37.6条规定:"仲裁预付金没有按要求缴纳的,经与仲裁庭协商,,秘书长可以要求仲裁庭暂停工作,并为此规定一个不少于十五日的期限,期限届满,相关的仲裁请求视为已被撤回......"

9 ICC仲裁规则第37.3条规定:"如果被申请人依据第5 条或其他规定提出反请求,仲裁院可以就仲裁请求和反请求分别确定预付金数额。仲裁院分别确定预付金数额的,各当事人应各自缴纳其仲裁请求所对应的预付金。"

10 ICC仲裁规则第37.5条规定:"仲裁院根据本37条所确定的任何预付金,可在仲裁过程中随时予以调整......"

11 ICC Commission Report, "Decisions on Costs In International Arbitration", ICC Dispute Resolution Bulletin 2015, Issue 2, Accessed March 27, 2018. https://iccwbo.org/publication/decisions-on-costs-in-international-arbitration-icc-arbitration-and-adr-commission-report/。其他约定规则主要是国际律师协会(IBA)制定的一系列规则指引,比如《IBA证据规则》(the Taking of Evidence in International Arbitration)第9.7条准许仲裁庭裁定在取证过程中违反诚信原则的一方承担费用。

12 影响仲裁费用承担约定有效性的相关法律可能包括:仲裁地法法律(lex arbitri),适用的实体法、仲裁裁决执行地法律等。

13 ICC Commission Report, "Decisions on Costs In International Arbitration", ICC Dispute Resolution Bulletin 2015, Issue 2,Accessed March 27, 2018. https://iccwbo.org/publication/decisions-on-costs-in-international-arbitration-icc-arbitration-and-adr-commission-report/。

14 英国《仲裁法》(1996)第60条(Article 60 of 1996 Arbitration Act), 香港《仲裁条例》第74.8条[Section 74(8) of the Hong Kong Arbitration Ordinance].

15 "英国方式"(English Approach)常表述为"cost follow the event"或 "loser pays",源于英国法院系统采用这种方式。

16 ICC Commission Report, Decisions on Costs In International Arbitration, ICC Dispute Resolution Bulletin 2015, Issue 2, Accessed March 27, 2018. https://iccwbo.org/publication/decisions-on-costs-in-international-arbitration-icc-arbitration-and-adr-commission-report/。:《中国国际经济贸易仲裁委员会(CIETAC)规则》(2015)、《德国仲裁院(DIS)规则》(1998)、LCIA、PCA和UNCITRAL规则均规定赢得仲裁一方有权收回合理的费用。虽然,ICC、HKIAC、SCC和SIAC规则没有明确规定采用"英国方式",但在实践中,这些仲裁机构的大多数仲裁裁决采用了"英国方式"。

17 ICC Commission Report, Decisions on Costs In International Arbitration, ICC Dispute Resolution Bulletin 2015, Issue 2,Accessed March 27, 2018. https://iccwbo.org/publication/decisions-on-costs-in-international-arbitration-icc-arbitration-and-adr-commission-report/。

18 香港《仲裁条例》第74.7条规定:"The arbitral (a)must only allow costs that are reasonable having regard to all the circumstances......"; 《CIETAC仲裁规则》(2012)第50.2条规定:"In deciding whether or not the winning party's expenses incurred in pursuing the case are reasonable......"

19 《ICC仲裁规则》(2012)第37.1规定:"The costs of the arbitration shall include the fees and expenses of the arbitrators and the ICC administrative expenses fixed by the Court, in accordance with the scale in force at the time of the commencement of the arbitration, as well as the fees and expenses of any experts appointed by the arbitral tribunal and the reasonable legal and other costs incurred by the parties for the arbitration."

20 这一点需要特别注意:普遍观点是争议金额越大,相应的费用会越高。当然国际商事仲裁界也认识到,仲裁不只针对大金额争议,小金额争议也有需要,而且一些金额小的争议对争议各方可能会有重大影响。从实务角度,在争议金额不大,甚至没有时,就关键争议事项提起仲裁不失为一个控制仲裁费用的好办法。

21 这一点上,中国律师有绝对优势。

22 ICC Commission Report, Decisions on Costs In International Arbitration, ICC Dispute Resolution Bulletin 2015, Issue 2,Accessed March 27, 2018. https://iccwbo.org/publication/decisions-on-costs-in-international-arbitration-icc-arbitration-and-adr-commission-report/。

23 ICC仲裁规则第37.5条:"In making decisions as to costs, the arbitral tribunal may take into account such circumstances as it considers relevant, including the extent to which each party has conducted the arbitration in an expeditious and cost-effective manner."

24 在南加利福利亚爱迪生公司(SCE)与三菱重工的国际商事仲裁中,SCE提出了约40亿美元的赔偿请求,但大部分被ICC仲裁庭驳回,因此仲裁庭要求SCE向三菱重工支付高达5800万美元的法律费用。

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