China: 俄罗斯仲裁的历史与现状

Last Updated: 5 April 2019
Article by Zhenli ZHANG
Most Read Contributor in China, March 2019

仲裁(арбитраж),是当事人达成协议,选择并授权非司法机关或个人对其提交的争议作出具有约束力的裁判的一种替代性争议解决方式。相较于刚性的司法程序,仲裁具有高效性、保密性、经济性等制度优势。因此,在民商事领域的争议解决中,仲裁发挥着十分重要的作用。俄罗斯自古以来便有着通过仲裁解决纠纷的传统。近年来,俄罗斯不断进行仲裁制度的改革和完善,展现出建设国际仲裁中心的坚定决心。

一、俄罗斯仲裁制度的历史沿革

仲裁制度在俄罗斯具有相当久远的历史。甚至有学者提出,仲裁庭的历史比国家法院的历史更为久远。

早在古罗斯时期,通过仲裁庭的介入,以合议方式解决纠纷就已经十分普遍。最初,通过仲裁达成的协议仅仅是口头的,后来逐步转化为书面的形式,并由当事各方签字画押,以产生和解的效力。按照古罗斯的法律,仲裁庭须对案件裁决形成一致意见并作出决议。决议一经宣读便产生终局效力;否则,当事人才有权启动二审程序。

《1649年会典》赋予了仲裁庭裁决和法院判决相同的地位和效力。这一时期,在俄罗斯存在三种类型的仲裁庭,分别是由一名仲裁员组成的仲裁庭、由修道院院长领导的仲裁庭和由公断员和证人参加的公断庭。仲裁员通常由各方挑选或在法律文件中予以确定。《1649年会典》的出台为俄罗斯仲裁制度的后续发展奠定了基础。

尼古拉一世在位期间,仲裁制度在俄罗斯正式确立。当时,沙皇受法国立法的影响,于1831年4月15日批准了《仲裁庭条例》,废除了之前关于仲裁庭的相关规定,建立了所谓的"法定仲裁庭"制度。这类仲裁庭主要审理公司之间、团体成员之间以及公司和外部人员之间的争议,仲裁的依据包括商业实践中通用的规则、习惯等。当事人如果对仲裁裁决不满,有权向二审法院提起上诉。《仲裁庭条例》极大地肯定了仲裁庭在解决纠纷方面的意义。此后,在19世纪末20世纪初,由于当时国家司法机关效率低下,严重腐败,仲裁得到更加广泛的适用。

苏联时期,由于整个国家排斥一切"资本主义"的制度,仲裁在法律和实践中的地位都大幅降低。在新经济政策实行期间,出于保密性的考量,许多企业家都十分希望通过仲裁解决商事纠纷。但自20世纪20年代起,国有企业被禁止将纠纷诉诸仲裁;20世纪60年代起,该限制的范围扩大到国家资本参股的集体农庄和组织。总的来讲,受当时封闭的国家政策的影响,仲裁制度在苏联时期并未得到广泛的适用。当时,整个苏联仅拥有海事仲裁委员会、对外经贸仲裁委员会等极少数的仲裁机构。苏联时期,国有企业间的纠纷皆由所谓的"国家仲裁"机关解决,该机关不属于独立的仲裁体系,而是带有准司法性质的仲裁机关。

苏联解体后,之前建立的"国家仲裁"机关便发展成了现代俄罗斯法院体系中的仲裁法院(арбитражныйсуд)。因此,当前俄罗斯的仲裁法院作为一个法律概念而言,并不属于仲裁体系,也不从事仲裁活动,而是国家法院体系的组成部分,主要负责审理民商事案件并作出司法判决。

同时,本着向西方看齐的态度,俄罗斯着手建立新的仲裁制度。随着全球化趋势的加强和资本主义制度在俄罗斯的发展,仲裁制度在俄罗斯得以飞速发展。据统计,截至2016年,俄罗斯境内约有1500家仲裁机构,平均每年受理150-200起仲裁案件。然而,在仲裁机构雨后春笋般发展的同时,仲裁庭专业水平和案件审理质量急剧下降,仲裁裁决的权威性和公信力也受到了质疑,很多仲裁裁决因为违反俄罗斯公共秩序而被拒绝承认和执行。积弊已久的仲裁制度亟待改革。

2015年12月29日,俄罗斯颁布了新的《俄罗斯联邦仲裁(仲裁审理)法》,并通过了《俄罗斯联邦国际商事仲裁法》修正案,其目的便在于改革和完善俄罗斯国内仲裁体系,将俄罗斯仲裁制度与世界接轨。

二、俄罗斯仲裁制度现状

《俄罗斯联邦仲裁(仲裁审理)法》对俄罗斯仲裁机构的活动进行了大幅调整,在仲裁程序、仲裁庭组成、仲裁范围、仲裁裁决的承认与执行等方面进行了大刀阔斧的改革。该法规定,俄罗斯联邦仲裁机构需要获得俄罗斯联邦政府颁发的许可,才可作为俄罗斯联邦常设仲裁机构组织仲裁活动。该法生效一年后,俄罗斯国内仲裁机构的数量由1500家锐减到4家,分别是俄罗斯联邦工商会国际商事仲裁院(Международный коммерческий арбитражный суд при Торгово-промышленной  палате РФ)、俄罗斯联邦工商会海事仲裁委员会(Морская арбитражный комиссия при Торгово-промышленной палате РФ)、俄罗斯工业企业联合会仲裁中心(Арбитражный центр при РСПП)和俄罗斯现代仲裁研究院俄罗斯仲裁中心(Российский арбитражный центр при Российском институте современного арбитража)。

1.俄罗斯联邦工商会国际商事仲裁院

俄罗斯联邦工商会国际商事仲裁院的前身是成立于1932年的全苏商会对外经贸仲裁委员会,该院专注于解决国际商事争议,是俄罗斯及东欧地区历史最悠久的国际商事仲裁机构之一。国际商事仲裁院是商事仲裁国际联盟成员,目前在伊尔库茨克、喀山、莫斯科州、下诺夫哥罗德、顿河畔罗斯托夫、圣彼得堡、乌法和秋明等八个城市皆设有分支机构。国际商事仲裁院的现任主席为科斯金﹒阿列克谢﹒阿列克桑德洛维奇。

需要特别注意的是,国际商事仲裁院虽然在名称中仍带有"仲裁法院(арбитражный суд)"字样,但却并不属于法律意义上的仲裁法院,也并非国家司法机关,而只是民间的常设仲裁机构,负责组织商事仲裁活动。

2.俄罗斯联邦工商会海事仲裁委员会

俄罗斯联邦工商会海事仲裁委员会的前身是成立于1930年的全苏商会航业争议专门仲裁院,是俄罗斯乃至全世界历史最悠久的海事仲裁机构之一。海事仲裁委员会的受案范围不仅包括货物运输合同、船舶租用、海损保险、救援、海上撞船、渔业活动中产生的传统性争议,还包括经济协议和代理协议、船舶修理、船舶管理以及其他海商领域的争议问题。海事仲裁委员会的现任主席和国际商事仲裁院相同,都是科斯金﹒阿列克谢﹒阿列克桑德洛维奇。

3.俄罗斯工业企业联合会仲裁中心

俄罗斯工业企业联合会仲裁中心是在俄罗斯新仲裁法颁布后,政府批准设立的第一个常设仲裁机构,目前已在圣彼得堡和克拉斯诺亚尔斯克两个城市设立了分支机构。该中心十分注重与中国的合作关系,不久前与北京融商一带一路法律与商事服务中心暨一带一路国际商事调解中心建立了合作关系。中心的现任主席为俄罗斯功勋法学家、莫斯科库塔芬国立法律大学校长布拉热耶夫﹒维克多﹒弗拉基米拉维奇。

4.俄罗斯现代仲裁研究院俄罗斯仲裁中心

俄罗斯现代仲裁研究院俄罗斯仲裁中心是唯一一所获得司法部授权直接在机构名称中加入"俄罗斯"字样的常设仲裁机构,共设有远东分部、西部分部、乌拉尔分布、原子领域分部等分支机构。近两年来,该中心与日本仲裁员协会(JAA)、新加坡国际仲裁中心(SIAC)、香港国际仲裁中心(HKIAC)等国际仲裁机构都建立了合作关系。中心的现任主席为俄罗斯联邦律师协会会长比利宾科﹒尤里﹒谢尔盖耶维奇。

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