China: 知产趣谈:一文教你破解专利文献密码

Last Updated: 26 February 2019
Article by AFD China Intellectual Property

不知道各位看官是否有过这样的困扰,读到一份专利文献,眼前飘过一串串号码,有可能是申请号、有可能是公开号、有可能是公告号、有可能是序号......遇到是本国文献的还则罢了,假若碰上外国文献,就不知从何查起了。

其实,每个国家的专利文献都有自己的编码标准和规则,记住这些编码规则,就能轻松破解隐藏在文献编码中的秘密。现在我们就来了解一下几个主要国家的专利编码规则,揭开它们神秘的面纱。

中国

首先从自家门口说起,"专利文献种类标识代码"是指国家知识产权局为标识不同种类的专利文献而规定使用的字母代码,或者字母与数字的组合代码。

举个例子来说,若我们看到一个文献编号为:CN102985900A,该如何理解呢?

首先,头两位"CN"是中国的国家代码;数字的第一位"1"代表了申请种类号(1表示发明专利申请;2表示实用新型专利申请;3表示外观设计专利申请);后8位数字是文献流水号;最后一位字母表示文献种类,"A"代表了"发明专利申请公布说明书"。

叮!这样一拆分是不是就简单易识了?上面这个文献实际上就是编号为02985900的中国发明专利申请公布文本。

那么文献种类还有那些其他名目呢?一起来瞧瞧:

发明专利文献种类标识代码

A0-A7 预留
A 发明专利申请公布说明书
A8 发明专利申请公布说明书(扉页再版)
A9 发明专利申请公布说明书(全文再版)
B0-B7 预留
B 发明专利说明书
B8 发明专利说明书(扉页再版)
B0 发明专利说明书(全文再版)
C、C0 预留
C8、C9 预留
C1-C7 发明专利权部分无效宣告的公告

实用新型专利文献种类标识代码

U0-U7 预留
U 实用新型专利说明书
U8 实用新型专利说明书(扉页再版)
U9 实用新型专利说明书(全文再版)
Y、Y0 预留
Y8、Y9 预留
Y1-Y7 实用新型专利权部分无效宣告的公告

外观设计专利文献种类标识代码

S0 预留
S8 预留给外观设计专利授权公告单行本的扉页再版
S 外观设计专利授权公告
S9 外观设计专利授权公告(全部再版)
S1-S7 外观设计专利权部分无效宣告的公告

有了这样的规则,再分析起专利文献是不是轻松很多?那么我们再来看看其他国家的标准是怎样的,看看中国的标准是否够"国际化"。

美国

美国的文献编号也是由三部分组成的,国家代码(US)+各类文献序号(流水)+文献种类代码。仅公布阶段在"申请公布序号"前增加了"申请公布年代"。

目前使用的文献类型识别代码包括:

文献类型识别代码 文献类型 说明
A1
A2
A9
专利申请公开
专利申请公开(再公开)
专利申请公开(修正)
授权前公开
授权前公开
授权前公开
B1
B2
专利
专利
授权前未曾公开
授权前曾公开
C1, C2, C3 再审查证书 原来使用的代码B1、B2现用于授权专利
E 再版专利 无变化
H 依法登记的发明 无变化
P1
P2
P3
P4
P9
植物专利申请公开
植物专利
植物专利
植物专利申请公开(再公开)
植物专利申请公开(修正)
授权前公开
授权前未曾公开
授权前曾公开
授权前公开
授权前公开
S 设计专利 无变化

按照上述规则,US9,276,953 B2,代表的就是序号为9276953的美国发明专利授权公告文本,且该申请已经过公开程序。值得注意的是,美国专门对植物专利进行了单独区分,用P来示意。大家可以根据上表中的内容轻松识别判断,这样一来是不是很简单呢?

值得一提的还有美国的申请号,不同于其他国家申请号规则,美国的申请号有2位系列号,代表了不同的申请/请求类型:

01-28用于专利申请,植物专利申请,再公告专利申请,依法登记的发明请求

29用于外观设计专利申请

60用于专利临时申请

90用于单方再审查请求

95用于双方再审查请求

欧盟

欧盟的文献编号规则也不复杂,同样由国家代码(EP)+各类文献序号(流水)+文献种类代码组成。而且文献种类相对简单:

种类代码 具体含义
A1 未经实质性审查,尚未授予专利权的附有检索报告的欧洲专利申请说明书
A2 未经实质性审查,尚未授予专利权的未附检索报告的欧洲专利申请说明书
A3 未经实质性审查,尚未授予专利权的单独出版的检索报告
A4 未经实质性审查,尚未授予专利权的对国际申请检索报告所做的补充检索报告
A8 未经实质性审查,尚未授予专利权的专利申请说明书的更正扉页
A9 未经实质性审查,尚未授予专利权的专利申请说明书的全文再版
B1 经过实质性审查,授予专利权的欧洲专利说明书
B2 经过实质性审查,授予专利权的异议后再次公告出版的欧洲专利说明书
B3 经过实质性审查,授予专利权的经限制性修改程序修改后再次公告出版的欧洲专利说明书
B8 经过实质性审查,授予专利权的专利说明书的更正扉页
B9 经过实质性审查,授予专利权的专利说明书的全文再版

英国

英国的专利文献编号体系相对简单,我们通过一个表格来了解一下:

文献名称 申请号 公开号 专利号(证书号)
专利申请说明书A 2位数字年代+当年序号+计算机校验码,如:98 06276.3 GB 2000001 A
专利说明书 B 沿用公开号
GB 2000001 B
补充保护证书 SPC/GB93/175 沿用申请号

日本

日本的编号体系与世界主要国家的体系都不尽相同,他们用文字表示了不同阶段,"特願"表示"申请阶段","特開"表示公开阶段,"特公"表示授权公告阶段,"特許"表示专利号。而其后的号码则按照 年代(日本纪年/公元纪年)+流水号组成。

因此,我们可能看到"特公昭63-025407"的公告号,也可能看到"(JP) 特愿2000-000122"的申请号。

韩国

韩国专利说明书的出版方式与日本如出一辙。专利说明书实行两级公布,均在公报中全文公布,并按国际专利分类分册出版。因此,韩国公报即为专利说明书。

专利申请公开公报,文献类型识别代码 A

这是一种专利申请公开说明书,为第一公布级。

注册专利公报,文献类型识别代码 B

实审合格授予专利权后予以公告,即为专利说明书。

实用新型申请公开公报,文献类型识别代码 U

这是实用新型申请公开说明书,为第一公布级。

注册实用新型公报,文献类型识别代码 Y

申请经形式审查和必要条件的初步审查即可授予注册证书。此后出版的注册实用新型公报即为注册实用新型说明书。

应该说绝大多数国家的编码规则都是参照国际通行的标准,然后结合本国的实际情况增补的。所以熟悉了某个国家的编号规则,对理解其他国家的规则也会有所帮助。

原编者案:本文已同步发布在北京安信方达微信公众号上。
https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/PiO1KSTxkrAat2pmxr_2-w

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