China: 雄安新区建设的法律思考

Last Updated: 3 July 2018
Article by Jia Hui

2018年4月14日,中共中央和国务院发布了《关于对<河北雄安新区规划纲要>的批复》, 同意《河北雄安新区规划纲要》(以下简称《雄安规划纲要》)。《雄安规划纲要》的编制长达一两年,从国内外279家规划机构中优选12家一流团队开展新区城市设计国际咨询,汇聚吴良镛、张锦秋、邬贺铨等60多位院士和规划建筑大师以及300多位知名专家,全程参与规划编制和研究论证。德恒律师事务所为积极参与雄安新区的建设也在雄安新区建立了办公室,并和当地合作伙伴建立战略合作关系,为雄安新区建设提供法律上的支持。对于雄安新区建设法律上的思考,应注意如下问题。

一、雄安新区建设与北京市建设的衔接

雄安新区的设立与疏解北京非首都功能有着密切的关系。习主席在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的报告中指出,以疏解北京非首都功能为"牛鼻子"推动京津冀协同发展,高起点规划、高标准建设雄安新区。根据《北京城市总体规划(2016年—2035年)》的规定,北京城市战略定位是全国政治中心、文化中心、国际交往中心、科技创新中心,到2020年北京市常住人口规模将控制在2300万人以内,2020年以后长期稳定在这一水平。《北京城市总体规划(2016年—2035年)》中也提出全方位对接和积极支持河北雄安新区规划建设,推动非首都功能和人口向河北雄安新区疏解集聚,打造北京非首都功能疏解集中承载地。

在对接雄安建设和北京的建设方面,雄安新区的建设应积极主动承接北京非首都功能和人口。《北京城市总体规划(2016年—2035年)》中指出支持在京资源向河北雄安新区转移疏解,支持部分在京行政事业单位、总部企业、金融机构、高等学校、科研院所等向河北雄安新区有序转移,全力支持央属高校、医院向河北雄安新区疏解。《雄安规划纲要》指出,要承接北京非首都功能疏解,明确了承接重点。在高等学校和科研机构方面,重点承接著名高校在新区设立分校、分院、研究生院等,承接国家重点实验室、工程研究中心等国家级科研院所、创新平台、创新中心。在医疗健康机构方面,重点承接高端医疗机构在雄安新区设立分院和研究中心,加强与国内知名医学研究机构合作。在金融机构方面,承接银行、保险、证券等金融机构总部及分支机构,鼓励金融骨干企业、分支机构开展金融创新业务。在高端服务业方面,重点承接软件和信息服务、设计、创意、咨询等领域的优势企业,以及现代物流、电子商务等企业总部。在高技术产业方面,重点承接新一代信息技术、生物医药和生命健康、节能环保、高端新材料等领域的央企以及创新型民营企业、高成长性科技企业。支持中关村科技园在雄安新区设立分园区。

应当注意的是,根据《京津冀协同发展规划纲要》,四类非首都功能将被疏解,从疏解对象讲,重点是疏解一般性产业特别是高消耗产业,区域性物流基地、区域性专业市场等部分第三产业,部分教育、医疗、培训机构等社会公共服务功能,部分行政性、事业性服务机构和企业总部等四类非首都功能。上述四类非首都功能与《雄安规划纲要》中重点承接的北京非首都功能存在差异,尤其是在高消耗产业、区域性物流基地、区域性专业市场等部分第三产业等功能方面,仅有现代物流、电子商务等企业总部被《雄安规划纲要》纳入了重点承接范围。

二、雄安新区建设与河北省建设的衔接

《京津冀协同发展规划纲要》将河北省未来发展定位为 "全国现代商贸物流重要基地、产业转型升级试验区、新型城镇化与城乡统筹示范区、京津冀生态环境支撑区"。在雄安新区建设和河北省建设方面,应注意如下问题:

(1) 加强生态环境建设是雄安建设的重要支撑

《雄安规划纲要》中指出,要加强生态环境建设,构建新区生态安全格局。规划建设"一淀、三带、九片、多廊",形成林城相融、林水相依的生态城市。"一淀"即开展白洋淀环境治理和生态修复,恢复"华北之肾"功能;"三带"即建设环淀绿化带、环起步区绿化带、环新区绿化带,优化城淀之间、组团之间和新区与周边区域之间的生态空间结构;"九片"即在城市组团间和重要生态涵养区建设九片大型森林斑块,增强碳汇能力和生物多样性保护功能;"多廊"即沿新区主要河流和交通干线两侧建设多条绿色生态廊道,发挥护蓝、增绿、通风、降尘等作用。

生态环境建设的成功与否关系到雄安建设的成功与否。然而,河北省在生态环境保护方面面临资源环境和经济发展的突出矛盾。 "打造京津冀生态环境支撑区,河北首先要自我加压。"石家庄市委副书记张泽峰代表曾表示,环境治理攻坚战,面对的是一块块难啃的"硬骨头"、一项项必须完成的硬任务。 1

(2). 完善交通基础设施的建设,促进商贸物流业发展

 《雄安规划纲要》中指出按照网络化布局、智能化管理、一体化服务要求,加快建立连接雄安新区与京津及周边其他城市、北京新机场之间的轨道交通网络,完善区域综合交通网络,包括:

  1. 构建"四纵两横"2区域高速铁路交通网络,重点加强雄安新区和北京、天津、石家庄等城市的联系。实现新区高效融入"轨道上的京津冀",20分钟到北京新机场,30分钟到北京、天津,60分钟到石家庄。
  2. 构建"四纵三横"3区域高速公路网。实现新区60分钟到北京、天津,90分钟到石家庄。加强新区与天津港、黄骅港交通联系,畅通新区出海通道。
  3. 提升航空服务水平。依托高速铁路、高速公路网络,加强新区与北京新机场、首都国际机场、天津滨海机场、石家庄正定机场之间的快速高效联系。
  4. 合理布局综合交通枢纽,形成"两主两辅" 4枢纽格局。

完善的交通基础设施将有利于现代商贸物流业的发展。京津冀地区拥有1.2亿消费人口,商品销售总额、物流业增加值分别占全国的23%和12%,是全国商贸物流最活跃、最集中的区域之一。《雄安规划纲要》将商务服务、智慧物流、现代供应链等产业明确作为重点发展产业。河北省人民政府于2016年发布了《关于印发河北省建设全国现代商贸物流重要基地规划(2016-2020年)的通知》,指出"全国现代商贸物流重要基地规划"的核心是服务京津、发展河北,发挥好河北省的区位交通和资源优势,明确提出打造"一环、两通道、多节点" 5商贸物流空间结构,发展壮大商贸物流业,尽快将其打造成新的支柱产业。 6

三、雄安建设与天津市建设的衔接

《京津冀协同发展规划纲要》将天津市定位为"全国先进制造研发基地、北方国际航运核心区、金融创新运营示范区、改革开放先行区"。天津市对于雄安新区的建设而言,可通过高速公路网,加强新区与天津港、黄骅港交通联系,提供新区的出海通道。另外,雄安新区的建设还可以吸引来自天津市的技术、资金。2017年4月,两省市签署《河北省人民政府、天津市人民政府关于积极推进河北雄安新区建设发展战略合作协议》。据报道,天津市委书记李鸿忠在河北雄安新区时指出,天津市委、市政府将主动服务、共同推进雄安新区规划建设作为践行"四个意识"的具体体现,在雄安新区规划建设过程中,需要天津付出什么、调整什么都坚决落实。天津要认真学习雄安新区规划建设的指导思想、先进理念,以此为标准标杆更好推动天津城市规划建设发展,认真落实两省市合作协议, 加强津冀全方位对接协作,为共同建设千秋大业、实施国家战略尽好天津责任。 7

Footnotes

1. "河北:倾力打造京津冀生态环境支撑区",2016年1月13日,来源:《光明日报》( 03版)

2. "四纵"为京广高铁、京港台高铁京雄-雄商段、京雄-石雄城际、新区至北京新机场快线,"两横"为津保铁路、津雄城际-京昆高铁忻雄段。

3. "四纵"为京港澳高速、大广高速、京雄高速(含新机场北线高速支线)、新机场至德州高速,"三横"为荣乌高速新线、津雄高速、津石高速。

4. "两主"为雄安高铁站、城际站,高铁站枢纽布局在昝岗组团,依托国家高铁网,便捷联系全国;城际站枢纽布局在启动区,站城一体,实现与京津冀核心城市直连直通。"两辅"为白洋淀站、白沟站,依托既有线路,服务新区北部外围组团,兼顾货运物流。

5. "一环"即环首都商贸物流产业聚集带,"两通道"即东西向大宗商品物流通道和南北向综合物流通道,"多节点"包括各设区市重要物流枢纽、100个县域特色物流市场和100个商贸交易中心。

6. 河北省人民政府发布《河北省建设全国现代商贸物流重要基地规划(2016-2020年)》,2016-05-09,来源:商务部流通业发展司

7. "李鸿忠考察雄安新区:要天津付出什么我们都落实",2017年04月19日,来源:新浪综合

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