European Union: 欧盟《商业秘密保护指令》

Last Updated: 6 March 2018
Article by AFD China Intellectual Property

2016 年6 月8 日,欧洲议会和欧盟委员会通过了欧盟《商业秘密保护指令》(欧盟第2016/943 号指令)。该指令旨在 通过明确和统一有关商业秘密的非法获取、使用或披露的法律来保护创新和发展。

欧盟成员国必须在2018 年6 月9 日之前将该指令转化到其国内法。在该日期即将来临之际,本文简要总结了该指令的 主要特征。

商业秘密的定义

该指令统一了欧盟各国对商业秘密的定义,第2 条第(1)款对商业秘密作出如下定义:

  1. 具有秘密性且并不为该领域工作人员普遍知悉或容易获得的信息;
  2. 因秘密性而具有商业价值的信息;以及
  3. 信息权利人为保护其秘密性而采取了合理措施的信息。

商业秘密可包括技术信息(例如制作方法、配方或化学成分)或者商业信息(例如顾客名单、产品发布日期或者市场调 研的结果)。

商业秘密的合法和非法获取

第3 条概括了合法获取商业秘密的情形,即通过以下方法获得的商业秘密是合法的:

  1. 独立研发或创作;
  2. 对已向公众公开的或者被信息获取者合法拥有(该占有人没有义务限制商业秘密的获取)的产品的观察、研究、拆 卸或测试;
  3. 工人或工人代表根据欧盟法律和各成员法律和实践行使通知和咨询的权利;
  4. 与诚实的商业惯例相一致的任何其他行为。

第4 条概括了被视为非法获取商业秘密的情形:

  1. 未经商业秘密权利人同意而获得、擅自使用或者复制其合法控制的(包括商业秘密内容以及可以推演出商业秘密内 容的)文件、物体、材料以及电子文档;或
  2. 任何被认定为有悖诚实商业惯例的行为。

第4 条还概述了商业秘密的使用或披露为非法的情形,即使用或披露商业秘密的人:

  1. 未经商业秘密所有人同意,以非法手段获得商业秘密;
  2. 违反保密协议中保密义务;或者
  3. 违反合同约定或者未履行限制商业秘密使用的其他义务。

第5 条规定了在某些情况下允许获取、使用和披露商业秘密的例外情形:

  1. 《欧盟宪章》规定的自由表达权;
  1. 披露不正当的行为或者不法行为等;
  2. 工人就合法行为依法向其代表进行披露;或者
  3. 为了保护欧盟或其成员国法律所承认的合法利益。

措施、程序以及救济措施

第6 条要求欧盟各成员国为非法获取、使用和披露商业秘密制定相关措施、程序和救济措施,这些措施、程序和救济措 施必须符合以下原则:

  1. 公平、公正;
  2. 不能过于复杂或成本过高,也不得设置不合理的时间限制或不合理的延迟;以及
  3. 有效且具有劝诫力。

第7 条规定了实施上述措施的方式,特别是这些措施需以合理的方式实施,并且应避免产生贸易壁垒,同时为防止其滥 用提供保障措施。

第8 条规定诉讼必须在6 年内(最长的诉讼时效)提起。

法院程序以及改正措施

第9 条规定,为保护法律诉讼程序中商业秘密的保密性,法官有权限制对商业秘密文件及与听证会有关材料的查阅。对 于那些以前因为担心有关商业秘密在诉讼过程中会被公众所知晓而被非法使用或泄露机密商业信息的企业,这应该是一种安慰。

第10 条和第12 条规定了法院在涉及商业秘密诉讼的法律程序中可能采取的一些改正措施,并允许法院:

  1. 责令停止或禁止使用或者披露商业秘密;
  2. 禁止生产、提供、使用侵权产品或将其投放市场;以及
  3. 命令销毁所有或者部分包含商业秘密的文件、物品、材料以及电子文件。

法院也可以下令从市场上召回侵权产品、销毁或者从市场上撤回侵权产品。

根据第14 条,法院还可以根据主管司法机关的请求要求侵权方支付损害赔偿。

第11 条和第13 条规定了法院在考虑使用第10 条和第12 条规定的任何/全部措施时应考虑的因素。

商业秘密保护的特征

与其他类型的知识产权不同,商业秘密保护不受时间限制。尽管如此,根据该指令第2 条第(1)款(a)项,某些类型 信息的价值可能会随着时间的推移而减少,此类信息也可能一直是保密的。

与版权相似,获得商业秘密保护没有固定的官方程序或者费用(例如申请费或注册费),维持这种保护也不涉及任何费 用(例如续展费)。

评论

商业秘密对于中小型企业而言特别重要,特别是那些没有经济能力来获得专利保护(如果此类保护可以获得)的中小型 企业,以及那些拥有有价值的信息但不被传统知识产权保护的企业。尽管该指令提供的保护在很多方面类似于爱尔兰现行的有关 违反保密义务以及滥用保密信息法律提供的保护,但企业无疑会非常高兴地看到此类保护得以明确,并给予法定的立足点。

如果企业希望依靠商业秘密作为其保密商业信息的一种保护形式,那么只有符合该指令中第2 条中规定的标准的信息才 有资格成为商业秘密。(编译自lexology.com

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions