China: 无人驾驶可能带来哪些法律挑战?

随着移动互联网的快速发展,我们迎来了"互联互通(Connectivity)"、"无人驾驶"等新时代的流行语。根据目前的普遍定义,无人驾驶汽车是一种智能化汽车,又称轮式移动机器人,主要依靠车内以计算机系统为主的智能驾驶仪来实现。汤森路透知识产权与科技最新报告显示,2010年到2015年间,与汽车无人驾驶技术相关的发明专利已超过22,000件。近年来,部分企业崭露头角,在研发无人驾驶汽车领域已占有显著优势。比如,谷歌公司自主研发的无人驾驶汽车,略去了方向盘、刹车等传统汽车必不可少的配件,无需驾驶员掌控就能实现汽车的启动和行驶。自从2012年5月8日美国内华达州机动车辆管理部门为谷歌自动驾驶车颁发了首例驾驶许可证之后,谷歌至今已在内华达州、加州、德州等其他允许自动驾驶汽车路测的地区进行了超过180万英里的路测。除了美国,加拿大的斯特拉特福市也已于今年1月1日开始上路测试自动驾驶汽车及其相关技术。新加坡NuTonomy公司也在8月26日开始向公众开放测试其无人驾驶出租车,尽管暂时该出租车只有6辆且行驶距离也较短,但已是世界上首辆公开测试的无人驾驶出租车。在中国,早在1992年,国防科技大学就已经成功研制出中国第一辆真正意义上的无人驾驶汽车。而在现阶段,中国的众多车企和互联网公司也都在紧锣密鼓地研发无人驾驶汽车的相关技术。

同时,为实现提前布局,不少国家大公司已经通过研发或收购等方式进入该产业。2014年5月,据报道,诺基亚将投入1亿美金开发无人驾驶及汽车互联网等相关技术。又如,2015年, 德国三家汽车企业奥迪、宝马和戴姆勒联合发布新闻公报,称三家企业已成功完成对芬兰诺基亚公司旗下地图业务HERE的收购。再如,高通近期宣布,将以每股110美元的现金收购恩智浦半导体公司(NXP),此次交易总额约为470亿美元,且可能会让前者成为汽车芯片行业最大的供应商。

确实,无人驾驶技术的加速研发必然会对人们的生活带来极大的便利,可以帮助驾驶员省去开车的时间,提高时间利用率,促进社会经济的发展,也可以帮助残疾人等不适宜驾驶传统汽车的人群能与正常人一样,享受汽车带来的便捷。但由于近几年无人驾驶汽车多次发生交通事故,甚至出现致死事故,我们也将不得不开始思考无人驾驶可能带来的法律挑战。

1监管方式的转变

麦肯锡公司对无人驾驶的咨询报告显示,无人驾驶的发展将会分为三个阶段。第一个阶段到2020年左右,那时自动技术的影响仍有限;第二个阶段为2020年到2035年之间,无人驾驶技术会逐渐进入主流;第三个阶段为2040年后,无人驾驶汽车将会变为人类主要交通工具。这表明在未来二十多年内,将会出现传统汽车和无人驾驶汽车长期并存的情况。但是在现阶段,不论是中国现行的《道路交通安全法》、《道路运输条例》、《道路交通事故处理程序规定》还是国外的道路交通法律法规,都还没有专门针对无人驾驶汽车的规定。《道路交通安全法》规定驾驶员必须依法取得机动车驾驶证之后,才能驾驶机动车。《道路交通事故处理程序规定》规定制作道路交通事故认定书应当由当事人签名。这些都是针对驾驶员而不是无人驾驶汽车中的软件程序。现行法律都是推定驾驶员可以随时掌控方向盘,但在无人驾驶的情况下这个推定可能无法实现。因此,无人驾驶汽车一旦进入市场,有关的立法也都必须进行修改。而且由于驾驶员对汽车的控制减少,立法规制对象的侧重点也将更多地偏向于汽车制造商及软件开发商。

在汽车生产环节中,工信部应针对无人驾驶汽车出台专门规定。由于驾驶员几乎不参与驾驶过程,全靠汽车自身软件的运行,导致汽车生产环节的任何疏漏都将会直接影响驾驶的安全性,因此必须对该环节进行严格规定,为消费者的人身安全提供保障。由于无人驾驶汽车必须能够处理各种复杂的路面状况,其设计的程序甚至会比一些大型技术设备更加复杂。所以工信部需成立专家小组,对无人驾驶汽车中不同零部件、软件程序所涉及的生产企业的准入条件及审查要求、产品专项检验标准进行研究。在销售环节中,工商部门也需对无人驾驶汽车中可能出现的问题采取相应措施。比如,到无人驾驶汽车技术日渐成熟并且真正开始面向大众的时候,一些企业为了抢占市场地位,可能会出现虚假宣传、欺骗消费者等情况。工商部门应加大市场监管力度,规范无人驾驶汽车的销售行为。

而在无人驾驶汽车上路之后,为了更有力地对无人驾驶汽车实施监管以及促进该新技术的发展,是否有必要进行交通规划呢?是否有可能在现有的马路上专门规划或者重新建造出新区域,以便于无人驾驶汽车的行驶?目前看来,若是在现有马路上规划,由于无人驾驶汽车刚进入市场时必然价格不菲,消费者数量有限,所以可能会出现无人驾驶汽车专有区域中空空如也,传统汽车行驶的区域却是堵上加堵。而若是重新建造出新区域,其成本必然是巨大的。在无人驾驶汽车完全成为主要交通工具之后,该部分区域又有可能变为多余,造成资源的浪费。再者,上路之后还有无人驾驶汽车发放牌照的管理问题。依据《道路交通安全法》第9条,传统汽车都需要驾驶员去公安机关交通管理部门进行汽车登记,然后交管部门向驾驶员发放汽车登记证书、号牌和行驶证。这样便可以根据牌照或证书调查到汽车的所有者,而交管部门也可根据牌照或证书实现对特定区域车辆的管理。在进入无人驾驶汽车时代之后,尽管汽车无需驾驶员的控制,但是发放牌照和证书将依旧是管理车辆不可缺少的环节。去年12月,百度完成国内首次城市环路及高速道路混合路况下的全自动无人驾驶时,由于还没有对无人驾驶发放牌照的规定,所以百度只能安排驾驶员坐在方向盘后面,交管部门便默认该车为有人驾驶。

2 数据保护与安全

在使用无人驾驶汽车时,乘客只需根据自己的喜好对驾驶方式、驾驶路线及其他细节进行设置,汽车就可以将乘客安全快速地送到目的地。但是先进技术也会在无形中对个人数据的安全产生威胁。比如,无人驾驶汽车的软件程序会记录车主一天的行程,将这些数据传输到后台,分析出该车主的常规安排,比如早上去早餐店、晚上去健身房。而后台操作者很可能会对这些个人数据进行整合分析,然后用于市场营销、保险或其他有巨大价值的领域。更有甚者,后台若再结合车主设置的驾驶风格等各项设置,整合出一套综合的车主数据信息,创建出全面的车主个人资料。这些完整的数据完全有可能被政府机构甚至黑客盯上,大大增加了消费者隐私受侵犯的可能性。

尽管个人数据的收集和分析可以为车主提供更个性化的服务,但是这种先进科技必然会导致人们毫无隐私可言吗?其实不然。为了避免今后的隐私纠纷,研发无人驾驶汽车的企业必须将可能存在的隐私风险全面地告知消费者,并且在收集、使用、转移、删除数据时给消费者自由选择的权利。原则上,企业在收集、使用、转移、删除消费者个人数据或向消费者发送商业性信息时,都必须获得消费者的同意。而且在获得消费者自愿且明确的同意之后,若企业意图将个人数据用于新目的,也必须获得消费者的再次同意才可以使用。此外,企业也需要提升软件的安全性,并可以考虑在整理个人数据时进行数据和个人身份的分离,将数据匿名化,以确保消费者的数据安全。

3 法律责任的划分

研发无人驾驶汽车的目的之一是为了通过软件的精密性来减少由于驾驶员的疏忽大意等原因而造成的交通事故。比如当汽车即将发生失控侧滑时,汽车控制系统将会检测到危险状态而自动启动稳定系统,防止事故的发生。但是由于未来二十年内,马路上传统汽车和无人驾驶汽车并存的情况无法避免,所以无人驾驶系统设计得再精密,也免不了会发生与传统汽车、路人或者无人驾驶汽车之间的碰撞。此时,到底是由汽车所有人或实际管理人、汽车制造商,还是软件开发商来承担事故的责任?事故产生的保险金额和赔付方式又该如何认定?

有人认为,出了事故应该完全由与无人驾驶系统有关的企业承担,即由汽车制造商或软件开发商来承担。因为乘客对于发生的事故既没有主观上的故意,也没有客观上的行为。对此责任的承担问题,也有汽车制造商表示会对事故完全担责。去年10月,沃尔沃汽车公司宣布对其全自动驾驶系统造成的人员、财产损伤承担责任。而奥迪官方也于今年表示如果奥迪车在自动驾驶模式下发生事故,公司将承担全部责任。这些揽责的声明到底只是营销策略还是真的对自己的技术十分自信我们也不得而知,但是设计得再细致全面的技术在现阶段也无法保证绝对不会发生任何交通事故,毕竟无人驾驶的系统对于复杂路况的判断暂时还不能做到绝对的准确。再者,对于未掌控方向盘或者刹车的乘客来说,也不一定能够保证事故绝对不涉及乘客的责任。因为乘客对于某个设置程序的误操作或恶意操作,导致交通事故的发生也是有可能的。而且,也不能排除有外来黑客远程恶意操控驾驶程序的可能。因此对于无人驾驶汽车发生事故时的责任划分问题,现行法律规定的一般事故责任认定规则还是适用的。与处理传统汽车交通事故一样,应该通过事故发生时的驾驶情况和各方的过错情况来判定事故责任。而不是对无人驾驶汽车事故一概而论,认定所有事故都是汽车制造商或软件开发商的过错,这样无疑会打消他们制造和开发无人驾驶的积极性。

而关于汽车保险,无人驾驶汽车的到来必然将会对该行业造成巨大的冲击。巴菲特曾表示:"任何增强汽车安全性能的技术都对社会有利,但对汽车保险业不利。如果没有事故,汽车保险也就没有存在的必要了。"确实,车主们购买车险本来就是为了减少由于事故带来的资金负担。但是无人驾驶汽车的出现将会大大减少驾驶员的人为误判,从而降低交通事故的发生率。那么汽车保险是否也就真的没有存在的必要了呢?其实未必。在接下来二十多年内,无人驾驶汽车技术尚未完善且尚未实现完全普及,在无人驾驶汽车和传统汽车并存的环境中,汽车保险业依旧有存在的必要性。等二十多年之后,就算无人驾驶汽车实现了真正普及,也不能保证零事故率。到时候险种势必会大量减少,而交强险可能会转变为汽车产品责任险。

4 跨界的并购与合作

在研发无人驾驶汽车的过程中,除了汽车同行业企业的合作之外,跨行业企业也都出现了与汽车行业不同程度的融合。这是因为无人驾驶涵盖多种程序,其性质决定了跨界并购与合作的出现。比如实时地图,无人驾驶汽车的行驶尽管无需依靠驾驶员对路线的认知和记忆,但是对实时地图软件的依赖确是极大的,因为规划路线全部都要参照实时地图。这就导致汽车生产商必须与开发地图的相关企业进行合作,利用先进的实时地图技术提高无人驾驶汽车的综合性能。除了地图以外,由于其复杂程序还融合了互联网、娱乐、通信等功能,导致互联网企业、娱乐企业、通信企业等多个行业都在企图进入汽车市场,通过与汽车行业企业的合作研发出能给消费者带来完美体验的无人驾驶程序。已于今年4月成功完成2000km超级无人驾驶测试项目的长安汽车便是如此,其与博世、华为、360、高德地图、百度等企业都开展了深入合作,共同完善执行系统、中央处理系统、高精度地图等多个领域。

尽管跨界企业之间的并购与合作有利于提升企业或合作产品的竞争力,但其带来的知识产权问题也不容忽视。如果企业之间某个知识产权权属有争议,或者没有明确各自的知识产权范围,或者在合作开发阶段没有做好技术保密工作,由此产生的知识产权纠纷将会直接对企业并购与合作是否顺利产生影响。这在大家都在争先抢占市场优势地位的现阶段,无疑会对涉及的企业带来不可估量的后果,很可能会功亏一篑。因此,跨界企业在技术融合的同时,也应注意对并购企业或合作企业知识产权的调查与评估,并注意对自己所有的知识产权进行有效保护。

5 国外的最新发展:以美国为例

美国是目前拥有最大自动驾驶汽车市场的国家之一,其国家运输部下的美国国家公路交通安全管理局(National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,"NHTSA")对自动驾驶技术的研发一直都持鼓励的态度。NHTSA于今年2月对《联邦汽车安全标准》进行了解释,扩展"驾驶员"的定义,将自动驾驶汽车内部系统包含在内,并表示为了适用于自动驾驶汽车,会对《联邦汽车安全标准》中的一些条款进行修改。这样有了监管部门的批准,新技术才能被迅速研发并应用到市场。其实NHTSA早在2013年就已经发布了美国第一个有关自动驾驶汽车的初步政策声明,将汽车自动化程度划分为5个等级,同时制定了针对几个不同等级的主要研究方向,并对美国各州如何测试无人驾驶汽车提出建议。尽管目前已经发生过多起事故,比如特斯拉Model S自动驾驶汽车致死事故,不过NHTSA对此表示自动驾驶汽车尽管有失误,但可以对此进行改善。而在前几日,运输部又发布了首个联邦自动驾驶汽车政策文件。这些声明和举措都表明美国政府将持续通过制定新的法律法规来鼓励促进自动驾驶汽车的发展。

此外,今年9月20日,美国交通部(U.S. Department of Transportation)颁布了《联邦自动驾驶机动车政策》(Federal Automated Vehicles Policy)。该政策分为四部分:(a) 自动驾驶机动车的性能指南,提出15项安全评估标准;(b) 明确了联邦和州政府不同的监管职责,强调了州政府监管的重要作用;(c) 美国国家公路交通安全管理局(NHTSA)目前的监管方式;(d)现代监管措施;为自动驾驶技术的安全检测和运用提供指导性的监管框架。

结论

无人驾驶汽车作为未来汽车智能化的标志,将会从根本上改变人类的驾驶方式。而在享受科技带来便捷的同时,企业也必须重视新技术在监管制度、隐私数据、法律责任、跨界合作等方面的诸多挑战。新技术的发展速度之快意味着政府机关必须加快这一新领域的立法进程。只有当法律问题得到妥善解决之后,我国才能尽快将无人驾驶技术更好地付诸实践。

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Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Emails

From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

*** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.