China: 无人驾驶可能带来哪些法律挑战?

随着移动互联网的快速发展,我们迎来了"互联互通(Connectivity)"、"无人驾驶"等新时代的流行语。根据目前的普遍定义,无人驾驶汽车是一种智能化汽车,又称轮式移动机器人,主要依靠车内以计算机系统为主的智能驾驶仪来实现。汤森路透知识产权与科技最新报告显示,2010年到2015年间,与汽车无人驾驶技术相关的发明专利已超过22,000件。近年来,部分企业崭露头角,在研发无人驾驶汽车领域已占有显著优势。比如,谷歌公司自主研发的无人驾驶汽车,略去了方向盘、刹车等传统汽车必不可少的配件,无需驾驶员掌控就能实现汽车的启动和行驶。自从2012年5月8日美国内华达州机动车辆管理部门为谷歌自动驾驶车颁发了首例驾驶许可证之后,谷歌至今已在内华达州、加州、德州等其他允许自动驾驶汽车路测的地区进行了超过180万英里的路测。除了美国,加拿大的斯特拉特福市也已于今年1月1日开始上路测试自动驾驶汽车及其相关技术。新加坡NuTonomy公司也在8月26日开始向公众开放测试其无人驾驶出租车,尽管暂时该出租车只有6辆且行驶距离也较短,但已是世界上首辆公开测试的无人驾驶出租车。在中国,早在1992年,国防科技大学就已经成功研制出中国第一辆真正意义上的无人驾驶汽车。而在现阶段,中国的众多车企和互联网公司也都在紧锣密鼓地研发无人驾驶汽车的相关技术。

同时,为实现提前布局,不少国家大公司已经通过研发或收购等方式进入该产业。2014年5月,据报道,诺基亚将投入1亿美金开发无人驾驶及汽车互联网等相关技术。又如,2015年, 德国三家汽车企业奥迪、宝马和戴姆勒联合发布新闻公报,称三家企业已成功完成对芬兰诺基亚公司旗下地图业务HERE的收购。再如,高通近期宣布,将以每股110美元的现金收购恩智浦半导体公司(NXP),此次交易总额约为470亿美元,且可能会让前者成为汽车芯片行业最大的供应商。

确实,无人驾驶技术的加速研发必然会对人们的生活带来极大的便利,可以帮助驾驶员省去开车的时间,提高时间利用率,促进社会经济的发展,也可以帮助残疾人等不适宜驾驶传统汽车的人群能与正常人一样,享受汽车带来的便捷。但由于近几年无人驾驶汽车多次发生交通事故,甚至出现致死事故,我们也将不得不开始思考无人驾驶可能带来的法律挑战。

1监管方式的转变

麦肯锡公司对无人驾驶的咨询报告显示,无人驾驶的发展将会分为三个阶段。第一个阶段到2020年左右,那时自动技术的影响仍有限;第二个阶段为2020年到2035年之间,无人驾驶技术会逐渐进入主流;第三个阶段为2040年后,无人驾驶汽车将会变为人类主要交通工具。这表明在未来二十多年内,将会出现传统汽车和无人驾驶汽车长期并存的情况。但是在现阶段,不论是中国现行的《道路交通安全法》、《道路运输条例》、《道路交通事故处理程序规定》还是国外的道路交通法律法规,都还没有专门针对无人驾驶汽车的规定。《道路交通安全法》规定驾驶员必须依法取得机动车驾驶证之后,才能驾驶机动车。《道路交通事故处理程序规定》规定制作道路交通事故认定书应当由当事人签名。这些都是针对驾驶员而不是无人驾驶汽车中的软件程序。现行法律都是推定驾驶员可以随时掌控方向盘,但在无人驾驶的情况下这个推定可能无法实现。因此,无人驾驶汽车一旦进入市场,有关的立法也都必须进行修改。而且由于驾驶员对汽车的控制减少,立法规制对象的侧重点也将更多地偏向于汽车制造商及软件开发商。

在汽车生产环节中,工信部应针对无人驾驶汽车出台专门规定。由于驾驶员几乎不参与驾驶过程,全靠汽车自身软件的运行,导致汽车生产环节的任何疏漏都将会直接影响驾驶的安全性,因此必须对该环节进行严格规定,为消费者的人身安全提供保障。由于无人驾驶汽车必须能够处理各种复杂的路面状况,其设计的程序甚至会比一些大型技术设备更加复杂。所以工信部需成立专家小组,对无人驾驶汽车中不同零部件、软件程序所涉及的生产企业的准入条件及审查要求、产品专项检验标准进行研究。在销售环节中,工商部门也需对无人驾驶汽车中可能出现的问题采取相应措施。比如,到无人驾驶汽车技术日渐成熟并且真正开始面向大众的时候,一些企业为了抢占市场地位,可能会出现虚假宣传、欺骗消费者等情况。工商部门应加大市场监管力度,规范无人驾驶汽车的销售行为。

而在无人驾驶汽车上路之后,为了更有力地对无人驾驶汽车实施监管以及促进该新技术的发展,是否有必要进行交通规划呢?是否有可能在现有的马路上专门规划或者重新建造出新区域,以便于无人驾驶汽车的行驶?目前看来,若是在现有马路上规划,由于无人驾驶汽车刚进入市场时必然价格不菲,消费者数量有限,所以可能会出现无人驾驶汽车专有区域中空空如也,传统汽车行驶的区域却是堵上加堵。而若是重新建造出新区域,其成本必然是巨大的。在无人驾驶汽车完全成为主要交通工具之后,该部分区域又有可能变为多余,造成资源的浪费。再者,上路之后还有无人驾驶汽车发放牌照的管理问题。依据《道路交通安全法》第9条,传统汽车都需要驾驶员去公安机关交通管理部门进行汽车登记,然后交管部门向驾驶员发放汽车登记证书、号牌和行驶证。这样便可以根据牌照或证书调查到汽车的所有者,而交管部门也可根据牌照或证书实现对特定区域车辆的管理。在进入无人驾驶汽车时代之后,尽管汽车无需驾驶员的控制,但是发放牌照和证书将依旧是管理车辆不可缺少的环节。去年12月,百度完成国内首次城市环路及高速道路混合路况下的全自动无人驾驶时,由于还没有对无人驾驶发放牌照的规定,所以百度只能安排驾驶员坐在方向盘后面,交管部门便默认该车为有人驾驶。

2 数据保护与安全

在使用无人驾驶汽车时,乘客只需根据自己的喜好对驾驶方式、驾驶路线及其他细节进行设置,汽车就可以将乘客安全快速地送到目的地。但是先进技术也会在无形中对个人数据的安全产生威胁。比如,无人驾驶汽车的软件程序会记录车主一天的行程,将这些数据传输到后台,分析出该车主的常规安排,比如早上去早餐店、晚上去健身房。而后台操作者很可能会对这些个人数据进行整合分析,然后用于市场营销、保险或其他有巨大价值的领域。更有甚者,后台若再结合车主设置的驾驶风格等各项设置,整合出一套综合的车主数据信息,创建出全面的车主个人资料。这些完整的数据完全有可能被政府机构甚至黑客盯上,大大增加了消费者隐私受侵犯的可能性。

尽管个人数据的收集和分析可以为车主提供更个性化的服务,但是这种先进科技必然会导致人们毫无隐私可言吗?其实不然。为了避免今后的隐私纠纷,研发无人驾驶汽车的企业必须将可能存在的隐私风险全面地告知消费者,并且在收集、使用、转移、删除数据时给消费者自由选择的权利。原则上,企业在收集、使用、转移、删除消费者个人数据或向消费者发送商业性信息时,都必须获得消费者的同意。而且在获得消费者自愿且明确的同意之后,若企业意图将个人数据用于新目的,也必须获得消费者的再次同意才可以使用。此外,企业也需要提升软件的安全性,并可以考虑在整理个人数据时进行数据和个人身份的分离,将数据匿名化,以确保消费者的数据安全。

3 法律责任的划分

研发无人驾驶汽车的目的之一是为了通过软件的精密性来减少由于驾驶员的疏忽大意等原因而造成的交通事故。比如当汽车即将发生失控侧滑时,汽车控制系统将会检测到危险状态而自动启动稳定系统,防止事故的发生。但是由于未来二十年内,马路上传统汽车和无人驾驶汽车并存的情况无法避免,所以无人驾驶系统设计得再精密,也免不了会发生与传统汽车、路人或者无人驾驶汽车之间的碰撞。此时,到底是由汽车所有人或实际管理人、汽车制造商,还是软件开发商来承担事故的责任?事故产生的保险金额和赔付方式又该如何认定?

有人认为,出了事故应该完全由与无人驾驶系统有关的企业承担,即由汽车制造商或软件开发商来承担。因为乘客对于发生的事故既没有主观上的故意,也没有客观上的行为。对此责任的承担问题,也有汽车制造商表示会对事故完全担责。去年10月,沃尔沃汽车公司宣布对其全自动驾驶系统造成的人员、财产损伤承担责任。而奥迪官方也于今年表示如果奥迪车在自动驾驶模式下发生事故,公司将承担全部责任。这些揽责的声明到底只是营销策略还是真的对自己的技术十分自信我们也不得而知,但是设计得再细致全面的技术在现阶段也无法保证绝对不会发生任何交通事故,毕竟无人驾驶的系统对于复杂路况的判断暂时还不能做到绝对的准确。再者,对于未掌控方向盘或者刹车的乘客来说,也不一定能够保证事故绝对不涉及乘客的责任。因为乘客对于某个设置程序的误操作或恶意操作,导致交通事故的发生也是有可能的。而且,也不能排除有外来黑客远程恶意操控驾驶程序的可能。因此对于无人驾驶汽车发生事故时的责任划分问题,现行法律规定的一般事故责任认定规则还是适用的。与处理传统汽车交通事故一样,应该通过事故发生时的驾驶情况和各方的过错情况来判定事故责任。而不是对无人驾驶汽车事故一概而论,认定所有事故都是汽车制造商或软件开发商的过错,这样无疑会打消他们制造和开发无人驾驶的积极性。

而关于汽车保险,无人驾驶汽车的到来必然将会对该行业造成巨大的冲击。巴菲特曾表示:"任何增强汽车安全性能的技术都对社会有利,但对汽车保险业不利。如果没有事故,汽车保险也就没有存在的必要了。"确实,车主们购买车险本来就是为了减少由于事故带来的资金负担。但是无人驾驶汽车的出现将会大大减少驾驶员的人为误判,从而降低交通事故的发生率。那么汽车保险是否也就真的没有存在的必要了呢?其实未必。在接下来二十多年内,无人驾驶汽车技术尚未完善且尚未实现完全普及,在无人驾驶汽车和传统汽车并存的环境中,汽车保险业依旧有存在的必要性。等二十多年之后,就算无人驾驶汽车实现了真正普及,也不能保证零事故率。到时候险种势必会大量减少,而交强险可能会转变为汽车产品责任险。

4 跨界的并购与合作

在研发无人驾驶汽车的过程中,除了汽车同行业企业的合作之外,跨行业企业也都出现了与汽车行业不同程度的融合。这是因为无人驾驶涵盖多种程序,其性质决定了跨界并购与合作的出现。比如实时地图,无人驾驶汽车的行驶尽管无需依靠驾驶员对路线的认知和记忆,但是对实时地图软件的依赖确是极大的,因为规划路线全部都要参照实时地图。这就导致汽车生产商必须与开发地图的相关企业进行合作,利用先进的实时地图技术提高无人驾驶汽车的综合性能。除了地图以外,由于其复杂程序还融合了互联网、娱乐、通信等功能,导致互联网企业、娱乐企业、通信企业等多个行业都在企图进入汽车市场,通过与汽车行业企业的合作研发出能给消费者带来完美体验的无人驾驶程序。已于今年4月成功完成2000km超级无人驾驶测试项目的长安汽车便是如此,其与博世、华为、360、高德地图、百度等企业都开展了深入合作,共同完善执行系统、中央处理系统、高精度地图等多个领域。

尽管跨界企业之间的并购与合作有利于提升企业或合作产品的竞争力,但其带来的知识产权问题也不容忽视。如果企业之间某个知识产权权属有争议,或者没有明确各自的知识产权范围,或者在合作开发阶段没有做好技术保密工作,由此产生的知识产权纠纷将会直接对企业并购与合作是否顺利产生影响。这在大家都在争先抢占市场优势地位的现阶段,无疑会对涉及的企业带来不可估量的后果,很可能会功亏一篑。因此,跨界企业在技术融合的同时,也应注意对并购企业或合作企业知识产权的调查与评估,并注意对自己所有的知识产权进行有效保护。

5 国外的最新发展:以美国为例

美国是目前拥有最大自动驾驶汽车市场的国家之一,其国家运输部下的美国国家公路交通安全管理局(National Highway Traffic Safety Administration,"NHTSA")对自动驾驶技术的研发一直都持鼓励的态度。NHTSA于今年2月对《联邦汽车安全标准》进行了解释,扩展"驾驶员"的定义,将自动驾驶汽车内部系统包含在内,并表示为了适用于自动驾驶汽车,会对《联邦汽车安全标准》中的一些条款进行修改。这样有了监管部门的批准,新技术才能被迅速研发并应用到市场。其实NHTSA早在2013年就已经发布了美国第一个有关自动驾驶汽车的初步政策声明,将汽车自动化程度划分为5个等级,同时制定了针对几个不同等级的主要研究方向,并对美国各州如何测试无人驾驶汽车提出建议。尽管目前已经发生过多起事故,比如特斯拉Model S自动驾驶汽车致死事故,不过NHTSA对此表示自动驾驶汽车尽管有失误,但可以对此进行改善。而在前几日,运输部又发布了首个联邦自动驾驶汽车政策文件。这些声明和举措都表明美国政府将持续通过制定新的法律法规来鼓励促进自动驾驶汽车的发展。

此外,今年9月20日,美国交通部(U.S. Department of Transportation)颁布了《联邦自动驾驶机动车政策》(Federal Automated Vehicles Policy)。该政策分为四部分:(a) 自动驾驶机动车的性能指南,提出15项安全评估标准;(b) 明确了联邦和州政府不同的监管职责,强调了州政府监管的重要作用;(c) 美国国家公路交通安全管理局(NHTSA)目前的监管方式;(d)现代监管措施;为自动驾驶技术的安全检测和运用提供指导性的监管框架。

结论

无人驾驶汽车作为未来汽车智能化的标志,将会从根本上改变人类的驾驶方式。而在享受科技带来便捷的同时,企业也必须重视新技术在监管制度、隐私数据、法律责任、跨界合作等方面的诸多挑战。新技术的发展速度之快意味着政府机关必须加快这一新领域的立法进程。只有当法律问题得到妥善解决之后,我国才能尽快将无人驾驶技术更好地付诸实践。

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Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions