Worldwide: 汽车业的数据与隐私保护:欧盟行业协会的实践

Last Updated: 6 March 2017
Article by Dentons  

汽车业的数据与隐私保护:欧盟行业协会的实践

2016-08-26 反垄断实务评论 作者:戴健民 邓志松

一、背景介绍

近年来,随着移动互联网及各种智能终端的迅速普及,个人数据不再局限于传统的用户名、地址以及金融信息领域,并早已在潜移默化之间渗透到了人们生活的方方面面:大到美国总统竞选过程中的咨询公司通过分析选民数据来预测最终结果,小到叫车软件通过各种用户数据来分析其消费习惯。大数据应用给各行各业带来巨大商业机会的同时,也随之产生前所未有的挑战,汽车行业也毫不例外。随着车联网的快速发展以及行业内更多移动互联网应用程序(APP)的出现,汽车企业将在数据与隐私保护领域面临更多的合规风险与挑战。过去两年,笔者所在的团队就接受了多家汽车企业的委托,处理该领域的合规和风险管理事宜。

我国庞大的人口规模决定了数据规模的庞大和繁杂,再加上数据保护方面的法律相对零散和滞后,在华汽车企业在数据与隐私保护方面面临着巨大的不确定性和挑战。与此相比,欧洲数据保护方面的法律框架较为完善。2015年9月,欧洲汽车制造商协会(ACEA)1发布了一份题为《与车联网及车联网服务相关的数据保护原则》的声明("《数据保护原则声明》")2,该声明为在欧盟市场内从事车联网及车联网服务的汽车企业设置了一系列所应遵守的数据保护原则。本文将对《数据保护原则声明》的主要内容进行介绍,希望能够为在华运营的汽车企业在个人数据处理和保护方面提供参考。

二、欧盟经验

(一)基本立法

欧盟具有非常完善的数据保护框架,包括一整套的条约、协议、指令等。其中,最引人注目的是今年4月份通过的《通用数据保护条例》("《条例》")3,其前身是1995年的《个人数据保护指令》4。自2018年5月25日起,《条例》将直接适用于欧盟各成员国。《条例》旨在加强对自然人数据的保护,统一欧盟境内此前零散的相关规则。《条例》的通过,意味着欧盟对个人信息保护的强度及监管力度均达到了前所未有的高度,其堪称史上最为严厉的数据保护条例。

值得一提的是,《条例》不仅适用于住所在欧盟的数据控制者和处理者,还适用于那些住所虽然不在欧盟,但其在向欧盟内数据主体提供商品和服务过程中处理了欧盟内数据主体的个人数据或对数据主体进行监测的数据控制者和处理者。换言之,即便是中国汽车商在欧盟境内没有住所,但是当其向欧盟消费者提供商品和服务的过程中处理了欧盟消费者的个人数据,或对欧盟消费者进行监测,仍需遵守《条例》。

(二)《数据保护原则声明》

1、简介

ACEA由若干汽车公司或集团5组成。该声明中,ACEA成员企业承诺,将根据声明中设定的数据保护原则,为消费者提供更高标准的个人数据保护。ACEA希望通过发布《数据保护原则声明》,向消费者展示其成员企业在欧盟境内提供车联网产品和服务过程中所应遵守的主要原则。这些原则包括:透明度原则、保障消费者选择权、时刻重点关注数据保护、维护数据安全,以及恰当处理个人数据。上述原则是对欧盟现行个人数据和隐私保护方案法律法规的补充。

2、数据保护的基本原则

(1)透明度原则(Transparent)

ACEA的成员企业会告知消费者其个人数据的用途、与之共享其数据的第三方,并明确处理其数据的公司身份。ACEA成员企业会通过包括合同、用户手册、车载娱乐信息系统的特别菜单、车载特殊图案、移动应用、网络等在内的方式,将上述信息以易于理解的方式告知消费者。当更改所处理的个人数据类型、数据用途以及数据共享第三方的隐私政策内容时,ACEA成员企业会通过上述方式告知消费者。ACEA成员企业将严格遵守合同约定,保障消费者所享有的包括获取个人数据在内的合法权益。

(2)保障消费者选择权(Give Consumers Choice)

ACEA成员企业致力于提升汽车产品和服务的质量,并尽最大可能保证消费者能够自由决定是否与他人共享其个人数据。只有在经消费者首肯或已履行法定义务的前提下,ACEA成员企业才会通过与第三方签订合同共享消费者数据,且仅作特定商用。特别是,消费者有权解除所购汽车产品或服务的地理定位功能,除非这与合同约定或法定义务不符(例如,紧急呼救)。

(3)时刻重点关注数据保护(Always Keep Data Into Account)

ACEA成员企业在设计、开发以及处理新产品、服务的每一个环节都会重点关注数据保护。如有保护数据的高标准要求,ACEA成员企业在将新型汽车投放市场之前,会就产品特性或新技术服务进行数据保护影响评估,并据此采取适当措施。

(4)维护数据安全(Maintain Data Security)

为保护消费者个人数据不被意外或非法损坏、丢失、篡改或泄露,ACEA成员企业会采取适当的技术、安全以及组织方案。在外包数据处理业务时,为有效保护消费者数据,ACEA成员企业会签订严格的合同条款。

(5)适当处理个人数据(Process Data In A Proportionate Manner)

在获取数据目的范围内,充分进行相关联的数据处理,而且不超越适当的范围。如有必要,ACEA成员企业会对数据进行匿名化、模糊化处理。只要其他信息与个人数据一直被联系在一起,就会得到与个人数据相同的保护。ACEA成员企业仅在获取数据目的范围内保留个人数据,之后会保持数据匿名,再或者是封锁、删除数据。

三、结语

我国有关数据与隐私保护的法律法规有待完善,而欧盟先进的立法以及ACEA丰富的实践经验则具有借鉴意义。ACEA发布的《数据保护原则声明》虽不具备法律效力,更像是一份自律准则,但能够为中国汽车业处理消费者个人数据和隐私提供了一定的参考。

值得注意的是,今年6月份我国《网络安全法(草案)》已经过全国人大常委会二审,进入出台倒计时阶段。该法律草案在数据保护方面与国际接轨,采取高标准、严要求,强调保障国家安全和维护公民权益,尤其是首次明确规定了对于数据跨境传输的限制,预计将对包括汽车业在内的跨国公司在华运营业务产生重大的实质性影响。

注释:

[1] European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA).

[2] ACEA Principles of Data Protection in Relation to Connected Vehicles and Services, September 2015.

[3] REGULATION (EU) 2016/679 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[4] Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.

[5] 欧洲汽车制造商协会成员包括: BMW Group, DAF Trucks, Daimler, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ford of Europe, Hyundai Motor Europe, Iveco, Jaguar Land Rover, Opel Group, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault Group, Toyota Motor Europe, Volkswagen Group, Volvo Cars, Volvo Group。

Dentons is the world's first polycentric global law firm. A top 20 firm on the Acritas 2015 Global Elite Brand Index, the Firm is committed to challenging the status quo in delivering consistent and uncompromising quality and value in new and inventive ways. Driven to provide clients a competitive edge, and connected to the communities where its clients want to do business, Dentons knows that understanding local cultures is crucial to successfully completing a deal, resolving a dispute or solving a business challenge. Now the world's largest law firm, Dentons' global team builds agile, tailored solutions to meet the local, national and global needs of private and public clients of any size in more than 125 locations serving 50-plus countries. www.dentons.com.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Events from this Firm
26 Sep 2018, Conference, New York, United States

Dentons is delighted to support a global IT services and consulting firm Miratech as an event host partner at their annual conference called M-Force18 New York on September 27th. The event will be held at Dentons New York office in the heart of Midtown Manhattan, opposite Rockefeller Center.

2 Oct 2018, Seminar, Dallas, United States

We are pleased to offer a program of five sessions designed specifically for in-house counsel. Topics will include:

  • In-house corporate ethical issues
  • What recent Supreme Court decisions mean for business
  • Keeping lawyers out of your benefit plans
  • Litigation tactics for in-house counsel
  • Employment issues in the age of #MeToo
 
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
 
Related Articles
 
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions