Worldwide: 汽车业的数据与隐私保护:欧盟行业协会的实践

Last Updated: 6 March 2017
Article by Dentons  

汽车业的数据与隐私保护:欧盟行业协会的实践

2016-08-26 反垄断实务评论 作者:戴健民 邓志松

一、背景介绍

近年来,随着移动互联网及各种智能终端的迅速普及,个人数据不再局限于传统的用户名、地址以及金融信息领域,并早已在潜移默化之间渗透到了人们生活的方方面面:大到美国总统竞选过程中的咨询公司通过分析选民数据来预测最终结果,小到叫车软件通过各种用户数据来分析其消费习惯。大数据应用给各行各业带来巨大商业机会的同时,也随之产生前所未有的挑战,汽车行业也毫不例外。随着车联网的快速发展以及行业内更多移动互联网应用程序(APP)的出现,汽车企业将在数据与隐私保护领域面临更多的合规风险与挑战。过去两年,笔者所在的团队就接受了多家汽车企业的委托,处理该领域的合规和风险管理事宜。

我国庞大的人口规模决定了数据规模的庞大和繁杂,再加上数据保护方面的法律相对零散和滞后,在华汽车企业在数据与隐私保护方面面临着巨大的不确定性和挑战。与此相比,欧洲数据保护方面的法律框架较为完善。2015年9月,欧洲汽车制造商协会(ACEA)1发布了一份题为《与车联网及车联网服务相关的数据保护原则》的声明("《数据保护原则声明》")2,该声明为在欧盟市场内从事车联网及车联网服务的汽车企业设置了一系列所应遵守的数据保护原则。本文将对《数据保护原则声明》的主要内容进行介绍,希望能够为在华运营的汽车企业在个人数据处理和保护方面提供参考。

二、欧盟经验

(一)基本立法

欧盟具有非常完善的数据保护框架,包括一整套的条约、协议、指令等。其中,最引人注目的是今年4月份通过的《通用数据保护条例》("《条例》")3,其前身是1995年的《个人数据保护指令》4。自2018年5月25日起,《条例》将直接适用于欧盟各成员国。《条例》旨在加强对自然人数据的保护,统一欧盟境内此前零散的相关规则。《条例》的通过,意味着欧盟对个人信息保护的强度及监管力度均达到了前所未有的高度,其堪称史上最为严厉的数据保护条例。

值得一提的是,《条例》不仅适用于住所在欧盟的数据控制者和处理者,还适用于那些住所虽然不在欧盟,但其在向欧盟内数据主体提供商品和服务过程中处理了欧盟内数据主体的个人数据或对数据主体进行监测的数据控制者和处理者。换言之,即便是中国汽车商在欧盟境内没有住所,但是当其向欧盟消费者提供商品和服务的过程中处理了欧盟消费者的个人数据,或对欧盟消费者进行监测,仍需遵守《条例》。

(二)《数据保护原则声明》

1、简介

ACEA由若干汽车公司或集团5组成。该声明中,ACEA成员企业承诺,将根据声明中设定的数据保护原则,为消费者提供更高标准的个人数据保护。ACEA希望通过发布《数据保护原则声明》,向消费者展示其成员企业在欧盟境内提供车联网产品和服务过程中所应遵守的主要原则。这些原则包括:透明度原则、保障消费者选择权、时刻重点关注数据保护、维护数据安全,以及恰当处理个人数据。上述原则是对欧盟现行个人数据和隐私保护方案法律法规的补充。

2、数据保护的基本原则

(1)透明度原则(Transparent)

ACEA的成员企业会告知消费者其个人数据的用途、与之共享其数据的第三方,并明确处理其数据的公司身份。ACEA成员企业会通过包括合同、用户手册、车载娱乐信息系统的特别菜单、车载特殊图案、移动应用、网络等在内的方式,将上述信息以易于理解的方式告知消费者。当更改所处理的个人数据类型、数据用途以及数据共享第三方的隐私政策内容时,ACEA成员企业会通过上述方式告知消费者。ACEA成员企业将严格遵守合同约定,保障消费者所享有的包括获取个人数据在内的合法权益。

(2)保障消费者选择权(Give Consumers Choice)

ACEA成员企业致力于提升汽车产品和服务的质量,并尽最大可能保证消费者能够自由决定是否与他人共享其个人数据。只有在经消费者首肯或已履行法定义务的前提下,ACEA成员企业才会通过与第三方签订合同共享消费者数据,且仅作特定商用。特别是,消费者有权解除所购汽车产品或服务的地理定位功能,除非这与合同约定或法定义务不符(例如,紧急呼救)。

(3)时刻重点关注数据保护(Always Keep Data Into Account)

ACEA成员企业在设计、开发以及处理新产品、服务的每一个环节都会重点关注数据保护。如有保护数据的高标准要求,ACEA成员企业在将新型汽车投放市场之前,会就产品特性或新技术服务进行数据保护影响评估,并据此采取适当措施。

(4)维护数据安全(Maintain Data Security)

为保护消费者个人数据不被意外或非法损坏、丢失、篡改或泄露,ACEA成员企业会采取适当的技术、安全以及组织方案。在外包数据处理业务时,为有效保护消费者数据,ACEA成员企业会签订严格的合同条款。

(5)适当处理个人数据(Process Data In A Proportionate Manner)

在获取数据目的范围内,充分进行相关联的数据处理,而且不超越适当的范围。如有必要,ACEA成员企业会对数据进行匿名化、模糊化处理。只要其他信息与个人数据一直被联系在一起,就会得到与个人数据相同的保护。ACEA成员企业仅在获取数据目的范围内保留个人数据,之后会保持数据匿名,再或者是封锁、删除数据。

三、结语

我国有关数据与隐私保护的法律法规有待完善,而欧盟先进的立法以及ACEA丰富的实践经验则具有借鉴意义。ACEA发布的《数据保护原则声明》虽不具备法律效力,更像是一份自律准则,但能够为中国汽车业处理消费者个人数据和隐私提供了一定的参考。

值得注意的是,今年6月份我国《网络安全法(草案)》已经过全国人大常委会二审,进入出台倒计时阶段。该法律草案在数据保护方面与国际接轨,采取高标准、严要求,强调保障国家安全和维护公民权益,尤其是首次明确规定了对于数据跨境传输的限制,预计将对包括汽车业在内的跨国公司在华运营业务产生重大的实质性影响。

注释:

[1] European Automobile Manufacturers' Association (ACEA).

[2] ACEA Principles of Data Protection in Relation to Connected Vehicles and Services, September 2015.

[3] REGULATION (EU) 2016/679 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation).

[4] Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data.

[5] 欧洲汽车制造商协会成员包括: BMW Group, DAF Trucks, Daimler, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, Ford of Europe, Hyundai Motor Europe, Iveco, Jaguar Land Rover, Opel Group, PSA Peugeot Citroën, Renault Group, Toyota Motor Europe, Volkswagen Group, Volvo Cars, Volvo Group。

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