Cayman Islands: The Real Estate Law Review, 3rd Edition


The Cayman Islands has adopted the Torrens Title system of land registration.1 This system was introduced to obviate the need for a chain of title and the necessity of tracing the vendor's title through a series of documents (to the extent that there is no need to investigate prior dealings affecting property). The fundamental principle of this system of land registration is title by registration (whereby interests in land pass upon registration and not upon execution of any dealing, resulting in the indefeasibility of a registered interest) rather than registration of title.

The main legislation in relation to the registration of interests of land in the Cayman Islands is the Registered Land Law (2004 Revision) (the RLL). Pursuant to the RLL, the title (also known as the register) for each parcel of land in the Cayman Islands is created by a system of land registration (registration), which is maintained by the Registrar of Lands (the Registrar).

Additionally, the register for each parcel of land in the Cayman Islands sets out the proper description and location of the land, the ownership of the land and the identity of any parties claiming an interest in the land by way of security or otherwise. Unregistered or 'overriding' interests (being statutory exceptions to indefeasibility of title) in land are created pursuant to Section 28 of the RLL.

Overriding interests are defined by Section 28 of the RLL as follows:

  1. rights of way, rights of water and any easement or profit subsisting at the time of the first registration under the Law;
  2. natural rights of light, air, water and support;
  3. rights of compulsory acquisition, resumption, entry, search, user or limitation of user conferred by any other law;
  4. leases or agreements of leases for a term not exceeding two years, and periodic tenancies (in certain exceptions);
  5. any unpaid monies which, without reference to registration under the Law, are expressly declared by any law to be charged upon the land;
  6. rights acquired or in the process of being acquired by virtue of any law relating to the limitation of actions or by prescription;
  7. the rights of a person in actual occupation of land or in receipt of rents and profits save where enquiries made of such person and the rights are not disclosed; and
  8. electric supply lines, telephone and telegraphic lines or poles, pipelines, aqueducts, canals, weirs and dams erected, constructed or laid in pursuance or by virtue of any power conferred by any law.

No disposition of land (whether by way of transfer, charge or otherwise) is effective unless registered in accordance with the terms of the RLL. Priority of competing interests is determined by the order in which instruments are actually registered.

The government guarantees the correctness of each register. Part X of the RLL provides for the indemnification by the government with moneys provided by the Legislative Assembly (Parliament) in respect of errors or omissions that cannot be rectified by the Registrar or the courts.

Generally, there are no restrictions for individuals or companies purchasing one residential property for personal use and up to two further residential properties for rent. However, if that number is exceeded, this will be deemed as carrying on trade and business in the Cayman Islands, and suitable business licensing will be required.2

Ownership of commercial real estate by either an individual or a company will also be deemed as carrying on a trade and business in the Cayman Islands, and suitable business licensing will be required.3

If a purchaser wishes to acquire a property in the name of a company, it will need to be purchased in the name of either a Cayman Islands ordinary company (ordinary company), a Cayman Islands branch (foreign company) or a Cayman Islands exempted limited liability company (exempted company) (although an exempted company is an unpopular choice for reasons set out in Section IV, infra).4


There was substantial recovery in the real estate market during 2013, with 2014 looking very promising.

A new government was elected in the Cayman Islands in May 2013. Shortly after that election, the government announced plans to proceed with new cruise ship berthing facilities in George Town, road infrastructure and a new international airport terminal at Owen Roberts International Airport.

In terms of private sector projects, the first phase of a 2,000-bed hospital facility called Health City Cayman Islands will be opened in February 2014. The complex is also planned to include a medical university and an assisted-care living community. Dart Realty acquired significant real estate holdings during 2013 and is in the process of continued development and expansion of its multi-phased city, Camana Bay. Additionally, Island Heritage Insurance Company acquired the landmark Atlantic Star Building.

The following hotel and tourism developments also took place:

  1. the construction of a Kimpton Hotel and residences on Seven Mile Beach (which would be the first 10-storey building in the Cayman Islands) is due to commence in 2014;
  2. a Conrad Hotel and residences in Beach Bay are currently being planned;
  3. the Ritz-Carlton, Grand Cayman was sold within the past 12 months to New York-based Five Mile Capital;
  4. the Marriott Grand Cayman Beach Resort and the Westin Grand Cayman Seven Mile Beach Resort and Spa and Exclusive Resorts club were refinanced in 2013;
  5. the former Hyatt Hotel was stripped down to its core following settlement of a nine-year long insurance claim following Hurricane Ivan; and
  6. the Embassy Suites Hotel on Seven Mile Beach received approval for an additional two storeys.

Additionally, the announcement by the government during 2013 for work permit term limits being extended from seven years to nine years has led to further activity in the residential real estate market. Coupled with this, the requirements for permanent residency for foreign nationals were amended to require households to increase their real estate investments in the Cayman Islands.


As mentioned in Section I, supra, individuals or companies may purchase up to one residential property for personal use and two further residential properties for rent without the need for trade and business licensing.

As also previously mentioned, the ownership of commercial real estate by either an individual or company will be deemed as carrying on trade and business in the Cayman Islands, and suitable business licensing will be required.

The primary legislation dealing with business licensing in the Cayman Islands is the Trade and Business Licensing Law (2007 Revision) (the TBL Law) and the Local Companies Control Law (2007 Revision) (the LCC Law).

Besides the exemptions set out above, an individual or a corporation engaging in almost any business locally is required to be licensed under the TBL Law (TBL licence). The provisions of this Law are mainly administrative. Depending on the nature of the business, certain other approvals may need to be secured in connection with the grant of the TBL licence (e.g., approvals from the Department of Environmental Health or from the Central Planning Authority of the Cayman Islands).

The application procedure for the TBL licence consists of completing the prescribed application form, and providing corporate information and certain other due diligence documents relating to the applicant to the TBL Board together with a cover letter outlining details of the business to be conducted. Currently, a processing fee of US$92 must be paid along with the licence fee as set out in the schedule to the particular law attributed to the business in question (licensing fees currently range between US$183 and US$487,808).

The applicant is able to designate a trading name for the business, which may be different from the name of the applicant. Such name is subject to the approval of the TBL Board.

The TBL licence is renewable annually, and the renewal application form must be submitted 28 days prior to the expiry of the current licence together with the process and renewal fees (which are identical to the fees submitted on the initial application).

For an application to be entertained pursuant to the TBL Law, the applicant, if an individual, must possess Caymanian status or hold a work permit; if a corporation, the applicant must either be beneficially owned or controlled up to at least 60 per cent by persons of Caymanian status, or hold a licence under the LCC Law (LCC licence).

Where an LCC licence is required, the application should be made in conjunction with the TBL licence, as the TBL Board is also responsible for approving the LCC licence.

An LCC licence will not be required where the company falls into one of the following exempted categories (although a TBL licence will normally need to be held in these cases, unless an exemption exists pursuant to law):

  1. the company has 60 per cent Caymanian shareholders, who maintain 60 per cent of the economic and voting control of the company (the TBL Board must be satisfied that effective control is not, either directly or indirectly, or by reason of any arrangement, artifice or device, invested in, or permitted to pass to, persons who are not Caymanians (e.g., by way of shareholders' agreements, special share classes provided for in constitutional documents)). The TBL Board applies this rule (the 60/40 rule) strictly;
  2. the applicant has successfully applied to the Governor in Cabinet of the Cayman Islands subject to Section 4(3) of the LCC Law that exceptional circumstances exist (having regard to the public interest) to exempt the applicant from the provisions of the LCC Law (which may be done subject to such terms and conditions as the Governor in Cabinet may deem fit); or
  3. the applicant falls within one of the exceptions to the meaning of carrying on business as set out in Section 2(2) of the LCC Law, including the following:

    • the applicant is carrying on, from a principal place of business in the Cayman Islands, business exterior to the Cayman Islands;
    • the applicant is doing business in the Cayman Islands with any person, firm or corporation in furtherance only of the business of that company carried on exterior to the Cayman Islands;
    • the applicant is buying or selling or otherwise dealing shares, bonds, debenture stock, obligations, mortgages or other securities issued or created by any exempted company, foreign partnership or a resident corporation incorporated abroad;
    • the applicant is transacting banking business in the Cayman Islands with and through a licensed bank;
    • the applicant is effecting or concluding contracts in the Cayman Islands and exercising in the Cayman Islands all other powers, so far as may be necessary, for the carrying on of the business of the company exterior to the Cayman Islands;
    • the business of an exempted company is with another exempted company, a foreign partnership or a resident corporation incorporated abroad;
    • the business is carried on by a mutual fund as defined by the Mutual Funds Law (2013 Revision) in the course of holding common management of an investment, or the acquisition or disposal of an investment;
    • the activity is the administration of mutual funds by a person licensed as a mutual fund administrator under the Mutual Funds Law (2013 Revision); or
    • the applicant's business is otherwise exempt from requiring an LCC licence.

Companies that are unable to avail themselves of one of the exceptions set out above will require an LCC licence, which, once obtained, will exempt them from complying with the 60/40 rule. An LCC licence enables a company to have more than 40 per cent foreign ownership and control where approved by the TBL Board.

The award of an LCC licence is discretionary, and the following factors, inter alia, will be taken into account by the TBL Board when considering an application:

  1. the economic situation of the Cayman Islands and the due protection of persons already engaged in business in the Cayman Islands;
  2. the nature and previous conduct of the company and any persons having an interest in that company, whether as directors, shareholders or otherwise;
  3. the advantage or disadvantage that may result from the company carrying on business in the Cayman Islands;
  4. the desirability of retaining in the control of Caymanians the economic resources of the Cayman Islands;
  5. the efforts made by the company to obtain Caymanian participation;5
  6. the number of additional people from outside the Cayman Islands who would be required to reside in the Cayman Islands were the application to be granted;
  7. whether the company, its directors, and employees have and are likely to continue to have the necessary professional, technical and other knowledge to carry on the business proposed by the company;
  8. the finances of the company and the economic feasibility of its plans;
  9. whether the true ownership and control of the company have been satisfactorily established; and
  10. the environmental and social consequences that would result from the carrying on of the business proposed by the company.

Foreign investment, if considered beneficial to the Cayman Islands economy, is generally encouraged.

The initial and annual licence fee for an LCC licence is currently US$3,049, plus an initial and annual application and processing fee of US$244. The LCC licence is issued for a duration of no longer than 12 years, and in January of each year, the company will be required to file a return of shareholdings with the TBL Board as at 31 December of the previous year.

An existing foreign corporation wishing to purchase or lease (or otherwise hold an interest in) real estate in the Cayman Islands must be registered at the Cayman Islands Companies Registry as a foreign company; such registration will then enable the corporation to apply for a TBL licence and an LCC licence (if required). Additionally, overseas investors may wish to incorporate an ordinary company and, once incorporated, the ordinary company will be able to own and lease Cayman Islands real estate and apply for a TBL licence and an LCC licence (if required).


A popular structure for holding real estate is through an ordinary company.

Subject to licensing requirements, this type of company will be able to own and lease Cayman Islands property, hire Cayman Islands-based employees, transact business, both with the public of the Cayman Islands and internationally, and apply for a TBL licence and an LCC licence (subject to the criteria mentioned in Section III, supra).

While the fees for establishing an ordinary company are more attractive than for other types of companies, there are additional annual and other requirements that must be met to maintain an ordinary company (e.g., holding an annual general meeting (which may be done by proxy) and filing an annual declaration outlining details of shareholdings with the Registrar of Companies). The annual return must detail, inter alia, the names and addresses of shareholders and the number of shares held by them, the amount of the capital of the company and the number of shares into which it is divided, and various details about calls made on shares. An ordinary company is not able to apply for a tax exemption certificate (TEC). An ordinary company is one whose primary purpose is to carry out business in the Cayman Islands, and is therefore the main vehicle that is recommended where the business will entail direct dealings with the public of the Cayman Islands.

Another popular structure for holding real estate is through a foreign company. The foreign company model is particularly useful if a foreign company wants to operate a physical presence in the Cayman Islands directly without setting up a separate legal entity, and it may do so by registering under Part 9 of the Companies Law (2013 Revision).

Subject to satisfying licensing requirements, the foreign company will be able to own and lease Cayman Islands property, hire Cayman Islands-based employees, transact business both with the Cayman Islands public and internationally, and apply for a TBL licence and an LCC licence (subject to the various criteria for these; see Section III, supra). When selecting the structure, certain activities of the main company (even where these are not conducted from within the Cayman Islands) could cause the foreign company to be subject to additional licensing requirements under Cayman Islands law.

Examples of businesses where additional licensing may be imposed include banks, trust companies, insurance companies, management companies, mutual funds, mutual fund administrators or entities carrying on securities investment business.

The least popular form of investment vehicle is the Cayman Islands exempted company. This type of company will, in limited circumstances, be able to own or lease Cayman Islands property, hire Cayman Islands-based employees, and transact business internationally (but generally not with the public of the Cayman Islands).

The objects of an exempted company must be carried out mainly outside the Cayman Islands, and it is not permitted to trade in the Cayman Islands with any person, firm or corporation accepting furtherance of the business of the exempted company carried on outside the Cayman Islands. This does not prevent the exempted company from effecting contracts in the Cayman Islands and exercising in the Cayman islands all of its powers necessary for the carrying on of its business outside the Cayman Islands.

As a result, an exempted company structure usually suits a company that wants to own or lease an office to transact business externally from the Cayman Islands. Additionally, an exempted company may apply for a TEC.


i Planning

The following legislation deals with planning control in connection with the development of real estate: the Development and Planning Law (2011 Revision) (the DPL), the Development and Planning Regulations (2006 Revision) and the Development Plan 1997.

The DPL also establishes a central planning authority for Grand Cayman as well as a Development Control Board for Cayman Brac and Little Cayman. These authorities generally review and consider applications to obtain planning permission for development as well as taking enforcement actions (where deemed necessary). Planning permission is required for any development, change or use of land, including carrying out building, engineering or other operations in, on, over or under any land; materially changing the use of any land or the use of any building on the land; and dividing land.

ii Environment

There is no current law in the Cayman Islands dealing with the environment, however, it is generally accepted that the polluter pays.

iii Tax

In addition to registration fees that are payable in connection with the conveyance of real estate, stamp duty is payable on the transfer instrument for each piece of real estate purchased. Pursuant to the Stamp Duty Law (2013 Revision) (the SD Law), stamp duty on a conveyance or transfer of real estate is payable on 7.5 per cent of the consideration. Consideration, for the purposes of the SD Law, is the higher of either the purchase price paid for the property or the market value of the property conveyed or transferred. Further, the market value of any property is the estimated amount for which a property should exchange on the date of valuation between a willing buyer and a willing seller in an arm's-length transaction after proper marketing, where the parties have each acted knowledgeably, prudently and without any compulsion.

iv Finance and security

The most common forms of security granted over real estate are as follows:

  1. legal charges registered over land;
  2. legal or equitable charges over shares in a company that holds land;
  3. debentures creating fixed and floating charges over assets held by a company holding land; and
  4. assignments of rent.

Legal charges over property must be registered on the title for the land at the Cayman Islands Land Registry (Land Registry).

Debentures creating fixed and floating charges are noted on the title for the land at the Land Registry, but are not capable of being registered in their own right.

Charges over shares are recorded on the Register of Shares for the land holding company, and an assignment of rental income is created by way of a deed. Notice of the assignment must be given to the tenant to perfect the securities.


Commercial types of leases in the Cayman Islands typically include net leases, gross leases and turnover rent leases.

There are no statutory provisions governing the term length of the lease, rent review mechanisms or renewal right provisions; these commercial terms are governed by contractual arrangements between parties.

Pursuant to the SD Law, stamp duty is assessed on leases on the following bases:

  1. if the term of the lease does not exceed five years, stamp duty will be equal to five per cent of the average annual rent;
  2. if the term of the lease exceeds five years but does not exceed 10 years, stamp duty will be equal to 10 per cent of the average annual rent; and
  3. if the term of the lease exceeds 10 years, stamp duty will be equal to 20 per cent of the average annual rent.

In calculating the length of the term for the purposes of the SD Law, the term will include a right to extend or option to extend that lease. By way of illustration, if a lease is for an original term of five years with a right to extend for a further period of five years and one day, then stamp duty equal to 10 per cent of the average annual rent will be payable.

If the Land Registry deems the average rent is below market value it will assess stamp duty on the basis of the market value. Market value, for the purposes of the SD Law, is the estimated amount for which the property should let on the day of valuation between a willing lessor and a willing lessee on appropriate lease terms in an arm's-length transaction after proper marketing, where the parties have acted knowledgeably, prudently and without compulsion.

In the Cayman Islands, all leases must be stamped, and the obligation to pay stamp duty is with the tenant. In order for any leases to be admitted as evidence in any court hearing, and pursuant to Section 23 of the SD Law, the party propounding that instrument will be required to stamp those instruments.

Pursuant to the RLL, all leases for a term exceeding two years must be registered at the Land Registry.

It is generally in a tenant's interest to have a lease registered, as registration of a lease on title gives 'notice to the world' of its interest in that property. If a lease is unregistered, it is arguable that it does not constitute a legal interest but rather an equitable interest in the property. It is also arguable that a new registered proprietor of property would not be required to take title to that property, subject to an unregistered lease, unless there are existing circumstances where, as a matter of equitable principles, an unregistered tenant is able to argue that it is unconscionable for a purchaser of the property not to recognise that lease. It is likely that mere notice is not enough for that.

In the Cayman Islands, an assignor of a lease is not accountable to the landlord for the assignee from the date of assignment.


During 2013, a proposed bill on new strata legislation was passed for comment by the Law Reform Commission of the Cayman Islands. Discussion on a draft bill commenced in 2010, and much of the impetus was caused by the effect of Hurricane Ivan on Cayman, and the various inadequacies of our current strata law to deal with the insurance, financial and property destruction issues following that natural disaster. (The current strata legislation is based on New South Wales Law from the late 1950s, and is largely outdated.)

Additionally, due to the increasing sophistication of strata developments in the Cayman Islands, a committee was approached to draft a Strata Titles Bill, which has gone through various drafts.6 The Strata Titles Bill addresses concepts such as tiered, phased and Crown leasehold strata developments. It also updates insurance requirements, winding up and new enforcement mechanisms.

Amendments to the current Strata Titles Law are welcomed on the basis that any of the concepts set out in the draft law are required due to the increased sophistication and volume of strata titled developments in the Cayman Islands.


2013 was a strong year in terms of investment in real estate in the Cayman Islands, and all indications point to 2014 being very promising in terms of real estate development in the jurisdiction.


1 Originally conceived by Sir Robert Torrens in South Australia.

2 Sections III and IV of the RLL.

3. Ibid.

4 Section III of the RLL.

5 The TBL Board requires this condition to be fulfilled by means of public advertising. Such requirement may be waived under various circumstances, and guidelines are provided by the TBL Board on the timing and content of such advertisements.

6 Maples and Calder has been approached by the Cayman Islands Law Society to lead a review on the Bill.

This article first appeared in the third edition of The Real Estate Law Review, published by Law Business Research Ltd.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Cayman Finance
Maples and Calder
Maples and Calder
Some comments from our readers…
“The articles are extremely timely and highly applicable”
“I often find critical information not available elsewhere”
“As in-house counsel, Mondaq’s service is of great value”

Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Cayman Finance
Maples and Calder
Maples and Calder
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions