Canada: Real Estate Law

Last Updated: September 8 2009


1. New City of Toronto Comprehensive Zoning By-law

2. Going "Green" in Your Lease

3. Toronto's Green Roof By-law

5. The Landlord and The Troubled Tenant: The Curious Case of Tenant Assistance

New City of Toronto - Comprehensive Zoning By-law
By Kim M. Kovar

On May 22, 2009, the City of Toronto released its first draft of a new Comprehensive Zoning By-law for the amalgamated City. This By-law will repeal and replace the comprehensive Zoning By-laws of the six former municipalities, harmonizing standards and implementing the City's new Official Plan.

The draft By-law is available for public review and comment at

While the By-law affects all lands in the City, landowners who have obtained zoning amendments or minor variances in the past few years or who have development plans should pay particularly close attention to this City initiative. Owners need to ensure that any relevant site-specific zoning amendments are being carried forward intact, and that changes to underlying definitions of relevant terms, which is part of the harmonization exercise, are not impacting development permissions.

As well, the new By-law contains no provisions at this time to grandfather previous minor variance approvals. If a landowner has obtained a minor variance and is constructing in accordance with that approval at this time, once completed the construction will enjoy protection as a legal non-conforming use. However, if planned construction has been delayed, and if the provisions of the former Zoning By-law which were varied are amended by the new By-law, previously granted variances may no longer be sufficient and landowners may need to reapply.

The City intends to introduce the new Comprehensive By-law to the Planning and Growth Management Committee in the fall of 2009 and have tentatively scheduled By-law enactment by City Council at its meeting on November 30 and December 1, 2009.

The City will be holding a series of public open houses to review the provisions of the new By-law with interested stakeholders. This process provides an important opportunity to seek clarification and provide feedback. Those who own or develop land in the City should review the By-law in order to assess its potential impacts on their property or business. If questions or concerns exist, owners must make those concerns known to City Council, in accordance with the provisions of the Planning Act, in order to protect their interests.

For further information, please do not hesitate to contact any member of the Aird & Berlis LLP Municipal and Land Use Planning Group. Details can be found on our Municipal and Land Use Planning web page, by clicking on Members.

Going "Green" in Your Lease
By Lloyd F. Cornett

We last wrote about greening commercial leases in the November 2007 issue of this newsletter. Since then, much has occurred to warrant another look at this topic.

There has been a lot of news recently about "greening" commercial buildings. For example, Bill 150, The Green Energy and Green Economy Act, 2009 (the "Act") was passed into law by the Ontario Legislature on May 14, 2009, only 80 days after the Bill received first reading. In addition to repealing or amending several other existing laws to facilitate energy conservation and the development of new "green" energy production, the Act will require owners of certain buildings (including residential properties) to provide prescribed information relating to energy consumption and efficiency to prospective purchasers or tenants, and will also require prescribed building owners "to prepare an energy conservation and demand management plan". The government would then have the power to require the owner to implement the plan.

The City of Toronto (like many other municipalities across North America and, indeed, around the world) is also stepping up its efforts to require buildings to become greener. The Toronto Green Standard, formerly known as The Toronto Green Development Standard, was adopted by City Council in December 2008 and will be implemented in September 2009. It will require or encourage sustainable performance standards to be met with respect to the development of certain new projects. On May 27, 2009, Toronto became the first municipality in North America to adopt a by-law which will require many classes of new buildings to have "green" roofs. (See accompanying article by Sandra Dos Santos)

In addition, the City, the Province, the federal government and other governments at all levels across the country either have, or are considering, regulations requiring their owned and leased property to meet certain standards of sustainability. Many building owners who have existing governmental tenants or who hope to attract such tenants to their properties in the future may find themselves out of the running because their real estate does not meet the green standards which the governmental entities are setting.

Many owners and occupants of new and existing buildings around the world are also voluntarily adopting and implementing sustainability standards for their real estate. Applications for registrations under LEED, BOMA BESt, BREEAM, Energy Star and other rating programs are increasing exponentially. There is a growing body of evidence that green buildings have higher rents, higher occupancy rates, lower operating costs and higher sale prices than traditionally-built buildings and many occupiers are demanding green buildings with the expectation of increased employee productivity, decreased employee absenteeism and turnover, and lower occupancy costs. Green buildings are increasingly perceived by both owners and tenants as being good for business. Those who ignore this trend risk having their properties eventually become "dinosaurs."

The combined "carrot and stick" effects of the commercial desirability of green real estate and new governmental regulation and incentives (with more anticipated) are forcing landlords and tenants of commercial properties to recognize the changes and challenges and to rethink the lease documents which govern their roles, responsibilities and long-term relationship. It is no longer good enough to rely on existing lease forms. When leasing space, all parties need to consider how the lease document will impair or facilitate their green goals, keeping in mind the long-term nature of many leases and the practical certainty of continuing major changes in the legal, political, social, environmental, design and business climate in which owners and occupants of buildings will have to manage their businesses and their property.

Albeit somewhat slowly, the North American real estate community has begun to understand the need for corresponding changes to their lease documents. Organizations such as the Building Owners and Managers Association (BOMA) and the Real Property Association of Canada (REALpac) have recognized this and have recently published "green" office lease forms, which are adaptations of standard lease documents previously published by them. (For more information, go to and click on "Store" and then "Leasing", or go to and follow the "Standards" hyperlink then "National Standard "Green" Office Lease for Single Building Projects").

Why is a green lease necessary? Simply put, because existing non-green lease forms are not designed for a "green" world and typically contain many terms which may prevent or inhibit the achievement of landlords' and tenants' sustainability goals. Additionally, and importantly, they do not include provisions necessary to adequately address issues such as:

(a) standards, targets and benchmarks for environmental performance and management of the building and the tenant's space,

(b) measurement of energy and water consumption,

(c) leasehold improvement, premises alteration, repair and maintenance obligations consistent with green standards,

(d) treatment of costs related to green construction, achieving green certification, capital costs of green installations and replacements and green building operation,

(e) use of green energy sources,

(f) use of green cleaning products and methods,

(g) allocation of potential costs and benefits from new carbon taxes and carbon credits,

(h) sustainable standards respecting matters such as lighting, indoor air quality and garbage, and rules governing things like the use of construction materials and recycled products,

(i) resolution of disputes concerning adherence to green targets or operational standards, or

(j) adequate remedies for the breach of green requirements in the lease.

While it is beyond the scope of this article to describe all of the matters which a review of existing lease forms with a view to making "green" modifications might address, some key focus areas are (i) operating costs, (ii) permitted use, (iii) casualty and insurance, (iv) tenant improvements and alterations, (v) maintenance and repair, (vi) removal of tenant improvements and fixtures, (vii) landlord access, (viii) waste management, (ix) signage, (x) utilities, (xi) assignment and subletting, (xii) rules and regulations, and (xiii) default and remedies.

Leases are long-term agreements which, once signed, are difficult to change unless the parties mutually agree to do so. They need to evolve to reflect the changes which have already occurred, and which will continue to occur in the future, with respect to the design and operation of buildings so that they will meet the sustainability demands and requirements imposed upon both landlords and tenants. Landlords completing a new development have the opportunity to create a new "green" standard lease form, tailored to the particular goals of the landlord, prospective tenants and the nature of the building. Renewals of leases are more problematic, as they are often predicated upon the terms of the existing leases and therefore there is limited scope to introduce green lease provisions where the other party is unwilling to do so (although some leases provide that renewals will be "on the landlord's then standard form" – which creates an opportunity to incorporate green lease language). Even if neither party has a right to compel the other to agree to amend the lease to incorporate green provisions, the landlord and tenant may nevertheless adopt their own green objectives and take action to implement changes in those areas which are within their own control. In the long run, however, landlords and tenants will likely conclude that they have no choice, and it is in their mutual best interests, to work closely together in this regard, and there is no time like the present to begin the task of identifying existing lease documents and creating new forms, which will facilitate rather than impede the realization of both parties' legitimate "green" objectives.

Toronto's Green Roof By-law
By Sandra I. Dos Santos

In keeping with the current trend of "going green", on April 14, 2009, the City of Toronto announced its intention to adopt the proposed Green Roof By-law ("Draft By-law"). As part of Mayor David Miller's "green" initiative that has put the environment front-and-centre on the municipal agenda, Toronto has become the first city in North America to mandate green roofs on most new buildings and set standards for their construction.

Due to strong opposition from the development industry and from other sectors, the Draft By-law was referred back to the Planning and Growth Committee ("Committee") for further review and consultation. On May 6, 2009, councillors on the Committee endorsed a revised Draft By-law that was much more expansive in nature than what was originally proposed. The Draft By-law was passed by a nearly unanimous decision on May 27, 2009, as By-Law Number 583-2009 ("By-law"). The By-law was enacted pursuant to Toronto's new green roof construction powers granted under s. 108 of the City of Toronto Act, 2006 and any contravention of a provision of the By-law will constitute and offence, and if convicted, a party may be liable to a maximum fine of $100,000.

The By-law will apply to all new building permit applications made after January 31, 2010, and it requires that every new building or building addition constructed with a gross floor area of 2,000 m2 or more be built with a green roof in accordance with the Toronto Green Roof Construction Standard. The proportion of roof area devoted to a green roof is dependant on the square footage of the building or building addition and it can range anywhere from 20 to 60 percent of available rooftop space. Available roof space is the total roof area excluding areas designed for renewable energy, private terraces and residential outdoor amenity space (to a maximum of 2 m2 per unit).

The By-law lowers the minimum square footage that would require a green roof from the initial proposal of 5,000 m2 and mandates that residential buildings with a height of 20 metres or higher be built with green roofs. In addition, certain exemptions previously provided are no longer available, namely exemptions for public or separate school buildings, industrial buildings and non-profit housing. Industrial buildings, however, are only required to construct a green roof covering 10 per cent of a new building's roof, and only to a maximum of 2,000 m2. The By-law also provides a reprieve to the industrial sector until January 31, 2011, to allow city officials to explore alternative options for the industrial sector, such as white roofs, that would achieve the By-law's goals.

As the By-law was enacted under the City of Toronto Act and not the Planning Act, a party wishing to reduce the green roof coverage requirement must apply to the Chief Planner for a variation or apply to City Council for an exemption. There is no recourse to the Committee of Adjustments or to the Ontario Municipal Board on this issue. If an application for a variation is approved by the Chief Planner or an exemption is approved by City Council, the applicant is required to make a cash-in-lieu contribution for the reduced area based on the average actual cost of construction. Currently, the cost is deemed to be $200.00 per m2. All funds collected as cash-in-lieu of construction of a green roof are to be segregated and directed to the Eco-Roof Incentive Program which provides funding for existing commercial, industrial and institutional buildings seeking to retrofit a green or cool roof.

The development industry has been a strong critic of the By-law. Developers, while not opposed to the concept of green roofs, are concerned that the By-law is simply unworkable in its current form. The Building Industry and Land Development Association proposed a pilot project instead of a full-scale by-law and advocates for the construction of green roofs to be voluntary. Other developers have argued that other technologies such as reflective roofs, wind turbines and solar panels may address the City's environmental concerns and be better suited for some projects rather than the City's "one-size-fits-all" approach. In addition, the increase in costs for developers will range from $18 to $28 per sq. ft. and the result may be a net increase of hundreds of thousands of dollars for major projects. That is a significant cost during an economic downturn with a price sensitive market. In addition, the By-law is silent with respect to financial incentives, direct or indirect, for new developments. In the long term however, green roofs may enhance the value of the building and translate into better yields allowing developers to recoup at least some of the higher front-end costs.

Another critic of the By-law, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese, has argued that the expense of installing a green roof would be too onerous for the Catholic Church, and presumably other faiths that rely on collections and donations for building projects. But it's not just the issue of costs that is a concern; it's also a factor in the design as traditionally the architecture in places of worship doesn't lend itself to flat roofs.

The benefits in implementing green rooftops in Toronto should be noted. As roofs make up 21 per cent of Toronto's surface area, some benefits include, without limitation, the reduction in air conditioning costs and in the urban heat island effect, the improvement in air quality and storm water management, enhanced biodiversity, aesthetic improvement of the urban landscape and an increase in property values. Such benefits have not been lost on other jurisdictions. While Toronto might be considered a pioneer in North America for mandating the construction of green roofs and establishing applicable construction standards, many jurisdictions internationally have long-standing policies on such initiatives, including Germany, Japan, Switzerland, and Austria. Certain jurisdictions have used indirect financial incentives such as storm water taxes, instead of direct subsidies, to encourage the implementation of green roof policies. This indirect approach is believed to work better than mandating green roofs through regulations or other means since property owners act voluntarily when there are clear economic gains. Moreover, whereas subsidies are a one-time financial advantage, waste water levies are a more permanent incentive thereby making long-term maintenance more tenable.

As a result of its green roof initiative, the City of Toronto has won the Federation of Canadian Municipalities' FCM-CH2M Hill Sustainable Community Award, which recognizes municipal leadership in sustainable community development and gives national recognition to projects that demonstrate environmental excellence and innovation in service delivery. At this time, it is unclear whether the City of Toronto, in response to concerns from various sectors, will devise a financial assistance program for the construction of green roofs and how much of a constraint on development the additional costs of such construction will be. The question becomes what works best in the long-term – the carrot of financial incentives or the stick of regulation? It's clear that environmentally, we have to move in that direction, but at what speed and at what cost?

The Landlord and The Troubled Tenant: The Curious Case of Tenant Assistance
By Steven Pavlides

Long periods of sustained commercial and office rental increases have come to an end in most Canadian cities. Tenants enduring financial difficulties in the current economic downturn are increasingly looking towards landlords for temporary or permanent rental concessions through rent reductions, abatements or deferrals.

While no landlord wants to grant rent concessions, the current downturn will force some landlords to make the difficult and inevitable determination that it is better to receive reduced rent from a struggling but operating tenant than it is to have no rental income and vacant premises.

The following are points for consideration by the landlord when negotiating tenant assistance agreements with a troubled tenant:

Abatement or Deferral: The tenant will undoubtedly request that rental payments abate, either by the full amount or by some negotiated portion, during the agreed upon rent relief period. The landlord should resist giving up the rent that was negotiated for in the subject lease whenever possible and instead, insist that a portion of the rent be deferred during the rent relief period for later payment. The amount of deferred rent can be used as an incentive against the tenant's default of any of its obligations under the lease. Upon any default of the tenant's obligations contained in the subject lease the portion of deferred rent should accelerate and become due and payable.

Review Financial Statements: Whether or not the subject lease requires financial reporting by the tenant to the landlord, the landlord should make it a requirement for consideration of the tenant's request for rent relief that the tenant provide the landlord with audited financial statements and reports for the past several reporting periods. The reasons for the requirement are two-fold. First, the landlord will be able to assess and confirm the tenant's claim of financial difficulties. Second, the landlord will be able to determine the appropriate amount of rent relief that the tenant may need to weather the current economic downturn.

Relief Period: Rental reductions or deferrals should be viewed as temporary and should only apply for a short period of time.

Default: The tenant assistance agreement should expressly provide that the tenant must not be in default of either the subject lease or the tenant assistant agreement itself. The agreement should provide that upon the tenant's default of any of the provisions of the subject lease or the tenant assistance agreement the following should occur: rental concessions terminate; the deferred or reduced amount of rent should become due and payable; and the rent provisions contained in the subject lease are immediately reinstated.

Clawback of Tenant's Personal Rights: In consideration for the landlord giving up or modifying its right to collect rent in the subject lease, which right was fairly negotiated during rosier economic times, the landlord should demand concessions from the tenant, whenever and wherever possible, with respect to certain rights the tenant may have obtained from the landlord during those same negotiations. The landlord should seek to eliminate or modify exclusive use and co-tenancy provisions, renewal and lease termination rights and exclusions from operating costs. The landlord should also seek to impose regular financial reporting by the tenant and require the payment of a security deposit if not so required under the subject lease.

The landlord should also look to impose termination rights should the following occur:

  • the tenant fails to pay the minimum/base rent (save and except for the deferred/reduce rent) or percentage rent, if applicable, or additional rent when required, or if the tenant defaults in the performance of its other obligations under the subject lease or the tenant assistance agreement;
  • the tenant or any officer, director, shareholder, employee, agent, associate or affiliate of the tenant makes any of the terms of the tenant assistance agreement known to any other tenant of the building or project;
  • the tenant becomes bankrupt or insolvent or any of the situations described in the subject lease that deal with bankruptcy, insolvency and fraudulent conveyances occur;
  • the subject lease is terminated, cancelled, repudiated or disclaimed in conjunction with any tenant bankruptcy or receivership proceedings or any reorganization whereby the tenant seeks relief or protection from its creditors;

  • there is a transfer of all or any part of the subject lease or of all or any part of the tenant's interest in the premises; or
  • on thirty (30) days' notice if the landlord wishes to terminate the relief period for any other reason, which should be at the landlord's sole, absolute and unfettered discretion.

Confidentiality: As noted above, a strongly worded confidentiality provision is an absolute necessity.

Adjustments: In return for the landlord agreeing to defer rent, the tenant should agree that the landlord shall not be required to make any year-end adjustments to operating costs, etc., in favour of the tenant. Instead any credits owing to the tenant based on those adjustments should be applied to deferred/reduced rent amount.

Much like in past economic downturns there will be tenants that are lost to bankruptcy in the current downturn. However, providing temporary rental concessions may help troubled tenants ride out the storm.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions