Canada: Responsabilité pour avoir aidé, encouragé ou fait accomplir des contraventions à la LCAP : le CRTC publie un important Bulletin d'information de Conformité et Enquêtes

Last Updated: January 9 2019
Article by Andrew S. Nunes, Alex Cameron, Daniel Fabiano and Demetre Vasilounis

La présente mise à jour s'adresse aux organisations de l'industrie numérique et, en particulier, aux intermédiaires qui risquent de ne pas se conformer à l'article 9 de la CASL.  

Le 5 novembre 2018, le Conseil de la radiodiffusion et des télécommunications canadiennes (CRTC) a publié le Bulletin d'information de Conformité et Enquêtes CRTC 2018-415, lequel comporte des lignes directrices sur l'approche générale du CRTC relativement à l'article 9 de la Loi canadienne anti-pourriel (LCAP).

L'article 9 de la LCAP prévoit qu'il est « interdit de faire accomplir, même indirectement, tout acte contraire à l'un des articles 6 à 8, ou d'aider ou d'encourager quiconque à accomplir un tel acte ». Il est également interdit d'envoyer des messages électroniques commerciaux sans en avoir obtenu le consentement exprès ou tacite (article 6), d'altérer les données de transmission de messages électronique dans le cadre d'activités commerciales sans en avoir obtenu le consentement exprès (article 7) et d'installer un programme informatique sur l'ordinateur d'une autre personne dans le cours des activités commerciales sans en avoir obtenu le consentement exprès (article 8).

Le présent bulletin intéressera particulièrement les organisations évoluant dans des secteurs numériques divers, lesquels incluent selon le CRTC les courtiers en publicité, les commerçants en ligne, les concepteurs et distributeurs de logiciels et d'applications, les fournisseurs de services de télécommunication et de services Internet, les opérateurs de systèmes de traitement des paiements, qui sont tous des exemples d'intermédiaires qui, de par la nature de leurs activités, risquent de contrevenir à l'article 9 de la LCAP.

Ce risque est devenu une réalité plus tôt cette année lorsque le CRTC a émis ses tout premiers procès-verbaux de violation (PVV) en vertu de l'article 9 à deux entreprises de publicité en ligne (voir «  Principales mesures d'application des dispositions relatives à l'installation de logiciels et à l'étendue de la responsabilité en vertu de la LCAP »). Dans ces PVV, le CRTC soutenait que les entreprises contrevenaient à l'article 9 en ayant permis à leurs clients d'utiliser leurs plateformes en ligne pour installer des programmes informatiques sur les ordinateurs d'individus sans avoir obtenu leur consentement (ce qui contrevient à l'article 8 de la LCAP). Bien que les PVV contenaient certaines directives sur la façon d'éviter de contrevenir à l'article 9, le CRTC a affirmé avoir émis ces PVV en raison des « actes et omissions » de ces entreprises. Cela a suscité de l'inquiétude de la part d'organisations souhaitant demeurer conformes à la LCAP, en particulier quant à la portée des omissions qui constituent une violation.

Les principaux facteurs d'évaluation de violations de l'article 9

Alors que les PVV ne contenaient aucun commentaire sur la façon dont le CRTC avait établi qu'il y avait eu violation de l'article 9, ce nouveau bulletin vient préciser davantage ce processus en indiquant les trois facteurs principaux qui sont pris en compte pour déterminer s'il y a eu violation de l'article 9 :

  • le niveau de contrôle qu'un particulier ou une organisation a sur l'activité qui contrevient aux articles 6 à 8 de la LCAP, et la mesure dans laquelle le particulier ou l'organisation est en mesure de prévenir ou arrêter cette activité;
  • l'importance du lien qui existe entre les mesures pouvant constituer une contravention à l'article 9 et celles qui contreviennent aux articles 6 à 8; et
  • les mesures raisonnables qui ont été prises, y compris les mesures préventives et de protection visant à prévenir que des violations aux articles 6 à 8 ne soient commises ou à arrêter ces violations.

Cependant, le CRTC a du même coup ajouté que cette détermination ne peut être faite qu'en examinant une « variété » de facteurs, et non uniquement les trois facteurs mentionnés ci-dessus, ce qui a engendré davantage d'incertitude à cet égard.

Autres facteurs

Bien que le CRTC ait mis l'accent sur l'importance de ces trois facteurs dans le cadre de son évaluation des violations de l'article 9, il a également donné des exemples de violations potentielles de l'article 9, sans toutefois préciser la façon dont ces facteurs (ou tout autre facteur) entrent en ligne de compte.

Poursuivez la lecture pour en savoir davantage sur ces contraventions à la LCAP et les mesures proposées pour atténuer le risque associé au travail avec des partenaires spécialisés en publicité.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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