Canada: Liquid Alternatives Now a Reality - Alternative Mutual Funds Regime Scheduled to Come Into Force January 3, 2019

The Canadian Securities Administrators (the "CSA") have published the long awaited and much anticipated final version of amendments introducing a "liquid alternatives" regulatory regime in Canada (the "Final Rules").

The Final Rules become effective on January 3, 2019 and modify provisions in National Instrument 81-102 Investment Funds ("NI 81-102") and related National Instruments that previously applied to conventional mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds. As a result, a new category of prospectus-offered investment funds known as "alternative mutual funds" has been created. Alternative mutual funds have investment objectives permitting them to invest in physical commodities or specified derivatives or, borrow cash or engage in short selling in a manner not typically permitted for conventional "long only" mutual funds.

The CSA has confirmed that the Final Rules reflect the CSA's effort to modernize the existing commodity pools regime by making the regulatory framework in Canada more effective and relevant, to help facilitate more alternative and innovative strategies and at the same time, maintain restrictions the CSA believes to be appropriate for products that can be sold to retail investors.

Prior to the Final Rules, alternative investment strategies were generally only available to Canadians who qualified as "accredited investors" (or another available exemption from the prospectus requirement) through privately offered pooled funds under an offering memorandum. The Final Rules, which are in a similar vein as the UCITS[1] regime in Europe and the "40 Act"[2] retail funds in the United States, represent a significant change in the Canadian investment fund landscape, as alternative mutual funds will be able to distribute their securities on a continuous basis to retail investors under a simplified prospectus in essentially the same manner as conventional mutual funds.

Commodity pools, previously offered under National Instrument 81-104 Commodity Pools ("NI 81-104"), will be redesignated as alternative mutual funds and governed by the provisions applicable to alternative mutual funds in NI 81-102. NI 81-104 will remain in force (at least for the time being) and will be renamed "Alternative Mutual Funds" with its only operative section relating to the proficiency requirements for mutual fund dealers who distribute alternative mutual funds. These proficiency requirements are unchanged from the current proficiency requirements for the distribution of commodity pools. NI 81-104 is expected to be repealed once replacement proficiency standards are adopted in connection with the other work being undertaken by the CSA in relation to dealer-focused issues.  

The Final Rules also modify certain provisions in NI 81-102 applicable to both conventional mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds (also known as closed-end funds).


The CSA spent the past several years modernizing Canadian investment fund product regulation. In 2012, Phase 1 of the modernization project codified certain exemptive relief that had frequently been granted to publicly offered conventional mutual funds in recognition of market and product developments. The Phase 1 amendments largely came into force on April 30, 2012.

In 2014, Phase 2 of the project introduced core investment restrictions and fundamental operational requirements for non-redeemable investment funds and enhanced disclosure requirements for all investment funds regarding securities lending activities. The implementation of a major portion of the amendments in Phase 2 occurred on September 22, 2014.

A second stage of Phase 2, the proposed alternative funds framework, was published for comment on March 27, 2013 requesting input on the broad parameters of a regime for publicly offered alternative funds. Following an extended period of public consultation, draft alternative fund amendments to NI 81-102 and related Instruments were published for a 90 day comment period on September 22, 2016 (the "2016 Proposed Amendments"). A total of 41 comment letters on the 2016 Proposed Amendments were received and considered by the CSA.  

Earlier this year, securities regulatory authorities began providing exemptive relief for certain "alternative funds" to be offered on the basis of the 2016 Proposed Amendments. This exemptive relief will expire on the coming into force of the Final Rules and such funds will thereafter be subject to the Final Rules.

Summary of the Final Rules

What has changed from the 2016 Proposed Amendments?

The Final Rules have made several noteworthy modifications to the 2016 Proposed Amendments:

  • This category of investment funds will be known as "alternative mutual funds" as opposed to "alternative funds" and the definition of an "alternative mutual fund" in NI 81-102 has been slightly modified;
  • The 10% single issuer concentration limit for short sale transactions will not apply to the short sale of "government securities" (as defined in NI 81-102);
  • Alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds will be permitted to borrow from both domestic and foreign entities that qualify to as custodian or a sub-custodian under NI 81-102. The 2016 Proposed Amendments contemplated that borrowing would only be permitted from Canadian entities;
  • The overall leverage limit for alternative mutual funds will remain at 300% of net asset value ("NAV") but the calculation of leverage will exclude the notional value of derivatives used for "hedging" purposes (as defined in NI 81-102);
  • The requirements for entities to qualify to act as custodian or a sub-custodian of an investment fund have been amended to remove the requirement for affiliates of domestic and foreign banks and trust companies to have publicly available financial statements reflecting the required amount of equity (although audited statements evidencing the required amount of equity will still be required);
  • Alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds will be permitted to deposit portfolio assets with a value of up to 25% of NAV with a single borrowing agent (other than the custodian or a sub-custodian of the fund) as collateral for short sale transactions as compared to the original 10% of NAV limit in the 2016 Proposed Amendments; and
  • NI 81-104 will continue in force only as it relates to the proficiency requirements for mutual fund dealers distributing alternative mutual funds and will be renamed "Alternative Mutual Funds".

A more in-depth examination of the Final Rules is set out below. To review the full text of the Final Rules click here

Definition of "Alternative Mutual Fund" and Naming Convention

An "alternative mutual fund" is defined in the Final Rules as "a mutual fund, other than a precious metals fund, that has adopted fundamental investment objectives that permit it to invest in physical commodities or specified derivatives, to borrow cash or engage in short selling in a manner not permitted for other mutual funds".

The category is intentionally broad in scope and is similar to the definition of "commodity pool" previously found in NI 81-104. The definition was altered from the 2016 Proposed Amendments to specifically exclude precious metals funds, which are now separate category of investment fund under NI 81-102.

The Final Rules do not prescribe a naming convention. An alternative mutual fund is not required to contain the word "alternative" or any other word signalling that the fund is an alternative mutual fund in its name. However, the amended companion policy to NI 81-102 (81-102CP) reflects the CSA's view that, in order to avoid potential confusion in the marketplace, publicly offered mutual funds should not use the word "alternative" in their name unless they qualify as an alternative mutual fund.

Concentration Restrictions

Investments by alternative mutual funds in any one issuer can be no more than 20% of NAV of the fund at the time of purchase (in comparison to 10% for conventional mutual funds). This 20% concentration limit does not apply to the purchase of certain securities,[3] including government securities (as defined in NI 81-102).

Non-redeemable investment funds, which previously had no concentration restrictions, are now also subject to this 20% limit under the Final Rules.

Investments in Physical Commodities

Alternative mutual funds are exempt from any restrictions relating to investments in physical commodities under the Final Rules. Non-redeemable investment funds continue to be exempt from such restrictions.

Under the Final Rules, conventional mutual funds, which were primarily restricted to investing in gold, are now permitted to invest (directly or indirectly through specified derivatives) in gold, silver, palladium and platinum subject to an overall limit 10% of NAV.  A "look through" test has also been introduced for measuring compliance by a conventional mutual fund with the 10% of NAV limit in relation to fund-of-fund investments. These changes reflect exemptive relief that has been regularly granted to mutual funds and recognizes that physical commodities represent an asset class that can be used effectively within a diversified investment portfolio.

Illiquid Assets

Investments by alternative mutual funds in illiquid assets are limited to 10% of NAV after purchase and a hard cap of 15% of NAV at any time. This same restriction currently applies to conventional mutual funds.

Non-redeemable investment funds, which have previously not been subject to any restrictions, will be subject to a limit on investing in illiquid assets of 20% of NAV at the time of purchase with a hard cap of 25% of NAV at any time. This may represent a significant change for non-redeemable investment funds that have a particular focus on illiquid assets.

The Final Rules make no substantive change to the definition of "illiquid assets"[4] and, as a result, may not capture certain assets that may be of interest to alternative mutual fund managers. Any future revisions to the definition the CSA may consider will occur separately.

Cash Borrowing

Alternative mutual funds may borrow cash up to an amount equal to 50% of NAV. Borrowing is only permitted from entities that qualify as an investment fund custodian or sub-custodian under sections 6.2 or 6.3 of NI 81-102. This essentially restricts borrowing to Canadian and foreign banks and trust companies (or their qualified dealer affiliates) and represents an important change from the 2016 Proposed Amendments which restricted cash borrowing to Canadian financial institutions.

Where the lender is an affiliate of the alternative mutual fund's investment manager, approval of the fund's independent review committee is required under National Instrument 81-107 Independent Review Committee for Investment Funds.[5]

Any borrowing agreements entered into with an affiliate of the manager must be in accordance with normal industry practice and be on standard commercial terms for agreements of this nature.

Non-redeemable investment funds, which currently have no borrowing restrictions, will be subject to the same borrowing restrictions applicable to alternative mutual funds.

No changes have been made to the borrowing restrictions applicable to conventional mutual funds in the Final Rules.

Short selling

Alternative mutual funds will be permitted to engage in the short selling of securities up to a limit of 50% of NAV (compared to 20% for conventional mutual funds and 40%, pursuant to exemptive relief, for commodity pools). In addition, in order to facilitate long/short strategies, alternative mutual funds will not be required to maintain cash cover for short positions and will be permitted to use short sale proceeds to purchase other securities.

Alternative mutual funds are generally subject to a 10% of NAV limit on the short selling of securities of single issuer (in comparison to 5% for conventional mutual funds). However, in a notable change from the 2016 Proposed Amendments, the 10% limit will not apply to the short sale of "government securities" (as defined in NI 81-102) by an alternative mutual fund.

Non-redeemable investment funds are subject to the same short selling restrictions as alternative mutual funds.

Another important change from the 2016 Proposed Amendments was made in section 6.8.1 of NI 81-102 to the limit on portfolio assets that may be deposited as collateral with a borrowing agent (other than the custodian or a sub-custodian) in connection with short selling transactions. This limit was increased to 25% of NAV for alternative mutual funds (or non-redeemable investment funds) from the 10% of NAV limit specified in the 2016 Proposed Amendments and will provide much needed flexibility for funds in making arrangements with counterparties for the short sale of securities.

Combined Limit on Borrowing and Short Selling

The aggregate of all cash borrowing and exposure under short selling for alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds is limited to 50% of NAV. This limit is unchanged from the 2016 Proposed Amendments.

Use of Derivatives

Under the Final Rules, unlike conventional mutual funds, alternative mutual funds are permitted to, directly or indirectly, use specified derivatives for investment purposes or to create synthetic leverage. Previously, only commodity pools were permitted to create leverage using specified derivatives.

Derivative Counterparty Requirements & Exposure Limits

The Final Rules codify prior discretionary relief for conventional mutual funds granted to facilitate compliance with the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in the United States and comparable legislation in Europe relating to the mandatory use of the facilities of sanctioned clearing corporations for facilitating trade of over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives. This codification applies to all investment funds subject to NI 81-102.

Unlike conventional mutual funds and commodity pools, which were required to deal with counterparties that had a "designated rating," alternative mutual funds will be exempt from this requirement, enabling them to enter into OTC derivatives transactions with a wider variety of counterparties (i.e. counterparties that do not have a designated rating). The ability to transact with a broader array of potential counterparties will benefit alternative mutual funds in terms of pricing and products.

Alternative mutual funds, however, cannot entirely ignore the credit rating of their derivatives counterparties.  In a change from the 2016 Proposed Amendments, alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds will be permitted to exceed the 10% of NAV mark-to-market limit on specified derivatives exposure to a single counterparty if the counterparty has a "designated rating" (generally, a rating of "A" or higher for the counterparty's long-term debt).

The new derivatives regime reflected in the Final Rules represents a perfect compromise between the existing rules for conventional mutual funds (which include both a creditworthiness test and exposure limits) and commodity pools (which include a creditworthiness test but no exposure limits).  Unlike conventional mutual funds, alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds will not be required to ensure that a counterparty meets the regulatory creditworthiness test, provided that the exposure to such counterparty is maintained at less than 10% of NAV.  However, if a counterparty has a designated rating, these funds can obtain greater exposure to such counterparty.

Aggregate Leverage Limit

The aggregate limit on the use of leverage by an alternative mutual fund through the use of cash borrowing, short selling and the use of specified derivatives remains at 300% of NAV unchanged from the 2016 Proposed Amendments.  However, the formula for the calculation of an alternative mutual fund's gross exposure has been modified. 

In determining the aggregate exposure, a fund must add up the following and divide the sum by its NAV:

  • the value of any outstanding loans;
  • the market value of all short positions; and
  • the aggregate notional value of the fund's specified derivatives positions, minus the notional value of those specified derivatives positions that are "hedging" (as defined in NI 81-102) transactions (emphasis added).

The ability for alternative mutual funds to deduct the notional value of specified derivatives used for hedging purposes will more accurately reflect the true amount of leverage utilized in the fund's investment strategies as hedging transactions generally act to reduce rather than increase leverage.

It should be noted that the aggregate leverage limit includes exposure gained by the alternative mutual fund from investments in underlying alternative mutual funds that may also employ leverage (i.e. a "look through" test is employed to determine aggregate leverage).

The aggregate leverage limit must be calculated as of any day on which the fund calculates its NAV (which, in most cases, is daily).  In the event that the leverage limit is exceeded, the fund must, as quickly as commercially reasonable, take all necessary steps to appropriately reduce the exposure.

The 300% of NAV limit of leverage is a departure from the previous commodity pool rules, which contained no limits on notional exposure.

Non-redeemable investment funds will be subject to the leverage limit of 300% of NAV under the Final Rules but will be provided with an extended transitional period in order to comply with this requirement.

Specific disclosure is required in the alternative mutual fund's simplified prospectus and fund facts/ETF[6] facts[7], or a non-redeemable investment fund's prospectus, as applicable, as well as in financial statements regarding the use of leverage by the fund.

Fund-of-fund Investing

Conventional mutual funds will be able to invest up to: (i) 100% of NAV in any other mutual fund, including ETFs, other than alternative mutual funds; and (ii) 10% of NAV in alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds provided that, in each case, the underlying fund is subject to NI 81-102.

The fund-of-fund investment provisions in NI 81-102 have the potential to significantly increase demand for alternative mutual funds, as conventional mutual funds in Canada have approximately $1.5 trillion in assets.

Alternative mutual funds will be able to invest up to 100% of their NAV in any other mutual funds (including alternative mutual funds) or non-redeemable investment funds provided the underlying fund is subject to NI 81-102.

The Final Rules remove the restriction that a top fund may only invest in an underlying fund that is a reporting issuer in the same local jurisdiction as the top fund. Instead, a top fund may invest in an underlying fund as long as the underlying fund is a reporting issuer in at least one Canadian jurisdiction.

The Final Rules do not modify the fund-of-fund provisions for non-redeemable investment funds.

All investment funds will still be prohibited from investing in investment funds that are not reporting issuers (i.e. private funds).

Redemptions and NAV Calculation

Alternative mutual funds will be permitted to redeem an order for securities of the fund at a price that is equal to the NAV of such securities determined on the first or second business day after the date of receipt of the redemption order provided that: (i) the fund has established a policy providing for the redemption price to be calculated on such a basis; and (ii) the policy has been disclosed in the fund's simplified prospectus prior to the implementation of the policy.

Alternative mutual funds must pay the redemption proceeds for securities that are the subject of a redemption order by no later than 15 business days after the valuation date on which the redemption price for the securities was determined.

Alternative mutual funds will also be permitted to suspend redemptions for a period of six months from the date on which receipt is issued for the initial simplified prospectus of the fund provided that this is disclosed in the prospectus. We do not expect that this option will be relied upon by many alternative mutual funds as it would likely be considered as a deterrent to sales.

Incentive (Performance) Fees

Unlike conventional mutual funds, which may only charge incentive fees calculated in relation to a reference benchmark or index, alternative mutual funds will have much greater latitude in the formulation and calculation of any incentive fee charged to the fund. The method of calculating the incentive fee must be disclosed in the simplified prospectus of the alternative mutual fund and the payment of any incentive fee must be based on the cumulative total return of the fund for the period that began immediately after the last period for which an incentive fee was paid (i.e. the incentive fee is subject to a permanent "high water mark").

Proficiency and Distribution

The securities of alternative mutual funds must generally be distributed through dealers that are members of the Investment Industry Regulatory Organization of Canada. For such dealers, the proficiency requirements are addressed in subsection 3.4(1) of National Instrument 31-103 Registration Requirements, Exemptions and Ongoing Registrant Obligations ("NI 31-103"), which states that "[a]n individual must not perform an activity that requires registration unless the individual has the education, training and experience that a reasonable person would consider necessary to perform the activity contemplated".

Mutual fund dealers will generally not be permitted to distribute securities of alternative mutual funds unless they meet the proficiency requirements remain in NI 81-104. These requirements (which are currently applicable to the distribution of the securities of commodity pools) provide that the mutual fund restricted dealer representative must have one of the following qualifications:

  • a passing grade for the Canadian Securities Course;
  • a passing grade for the Derivatives Fundamentals Course;
  • successfully completed the Chartered Financial Analyst Program; or
  • obtained any applicable proficiency standard mandated by a self-regulatory authority.

The CSA is currently engaged in ongoing work in relation to dealer- focused issues and it is anticipated that any significant changes relating to dealer proficiency standards will be addressed as part of these efforts. The CSA is expected to repeal NI 81-104 in its entirety once an appropriate replacement for mutual fund dealer proficiency standards is in place.

Exempt market dealers are not permitted to distribute securities of alternative mutual funds offered under a simplified prospectus.

Offering and Point of Sale Documents

Alternative mutual funds will generally be offered in the same manner as conventional mutual funds. Alternative mutual funds not listed on a stock exchange will be subject to the same disclosure regime as conventional mutual funds under NI 81-101 Mutual Fund Prospectus Disclosure, which includes the preparation of a simplified prospectus and annual information form as well as a fund facts document for each class or series of units of the fund that is delivered to investors at the point of sale.

While multiple investment funds can normally be combined in the same simplified prospectus, the simplified prospectus for an alternative mutual fund is not permitted to be combined with the simplified prospectus for a conventional mutual fund in order to avoid potential confusion.

Alternative mutual funds will be required to include prescribed textbox disclosure in the fund facts document stating that the fund is an alternative mutual fund under NI 81-102, how its strategies differ from conventional mutual funds and include additional disclosure regarding lenders (if the alternative mutual fund intends to borrow cash) as well as the use of leverage.

Non-redeemable investment funds, alternative mutual funds that are listed on an exchange and ETFs will have to be offered through a long form prospectus and ETF facts document.

Custodial Arrangements

Alternative mutual funds are required to appoint a single Canadian custodian but may also have one or more sub-custodians who hold the assets of the fund.  For portfolio assets that are held in Canada, the custodian or sub-custodian must meet the qualifications set out in section 6.2 of NI 81-102.  For portfolio assets held by a sub-custodian outside of Canada, the sub-custodian must satisfy the requirements in section 6.3 of NI 81-102.  

The Final Rules have modified the requirements for affiliates of domestic and foreign banks or trust companies to qualify as custodian or sub-custodians under sections 6.2 and 6.3 of NI 81-102. These entities are no longer required to have publicly available audited financial statements showing the required amount of equity (although audited statements showing the required amount of equity will still be required). This change means that bank-owned prime brokers in Canada and abroad will likely qualify to act as custodian or a sub-custodian (as applicable) of a publicly offered investment fund resulting in greater flexibility for alternative mutual funds and non-redeemable investment funds in structuring their custodial and prime brokerage arrangements.

Continuous Disclosure

Alternative mutual funds will be subject to the same ongoing disclosure requirements as conventional mutual funds and other prospectus qualified investment funds, which include (by way of example) preparation and delivery of annual audited and semi-annual unaudited financial statements, management reports of fund performance, annual information forms and timely disclosure of material changes.

Seed Capital and Organizational Costs

Alternative mutual funds will have minimum seed capital requirements of $150,000, the same as conventional mutual funds. The seed capital investment may be redeemed once the alternative mutual fund has raised at least $500,000 from outside investors. This is a departure from the seed capital requirements previously applicable to commodity pools, which required the manager to maintain a minimum of $50,000 in seed capital for the life of the commodity pool.

Managers of alternative mutual funds will not be entitled to reimbursement from the fund for organizational costs incurred in the establishment and preparation of the initial offering documents of the fund (as is currently the case with conventional mutual funds). In contrast, managers of non-redeemable investment funds and ETFs that are not in continuous distribution will continue to be able to pass on organizational costs to the funds.

If an alternative mutual fund is distributed in Québec, the fund will have an added cost of translating its offering documents into French.

Restrictions on Sales Commissions and Marketing Practices

Alternative mutual funds will be subject to National Instrument 81-105 Mutual Fund Sales Practices. Among other restrictions, sales commissions cannot be charged to the fund and must be paid by the manager.

Securityholder and Regulatory Approval of Fundamental Changes

The current rules that apply to all investment funds regarding fundamental changes (events requiring securityholder approval) also apply to alternative mutual funds. A change in the basis of calculating fees, fee increases, changes in the fundamental investment objectives of the fund or reorganizations, among other things, require securityholder approval. In addition, the costs associated with any reorganization of the fund may not be borne by the fund.

Furthermore, regulatory approval is required in the event of, among other things, a change in the manager of the alternative mutual fund (other than to an affiliate) or a change of control of the manager.

Transition Period

The Final Rules will come into force on January 3, 2019. The CSA has provided existing commodity pools a transition period that expires on July 4, 2019 to make any necessary operational changes in order to comply with the Final Rules. Existing non-redeemable investment funds will also be exempted from certain of the investment restrictions in the Final Rules subject to certain conditions.

Voluntary Transition to an Alternative Mutual Fund

In contrast to a commodity pool, which will be designated as an alternative mutual fund under the Final Rules, an existing non-redeemable investment fund may now choose to transition itself to an alternative mutual fund. However, there may be practical challenges with such a transition, including: (i) a meeting of unitholders in order to obtain unitholder approval, as the transition would likely constitute a change in fundamental investment objectives or restrictions of the fund; (ii) amendments to the constating documents of the fund; and (iii) changing the custodial arrangements of the fund (if necessary). Existing conventional mutual funds can also choose to transition into alternative mutual funds, but they would encounter similar challenges.

Limits of Final Rules

Although the Final Rules significantly increase the range of strategies that can be offered to retail investors, there remain certain strategies that would not be permitted under the Final Rules. For example, the limit on short selling (50% of NAV) does not allow a "pure" 100% long/short market neutral strategy to be implemented. In addition, the total leverage limit of 300% of NAV may restrict some managed futures strategies.

Opportunities for Growth

The Final Rules will create significant opportunities for Canadian alternative managers to expand their business. For many years, mutual fund rules in Europe and the United States have been more flexible than those in Canada. Under the Final Rules, Canadian managers will now be able to offer a wide variety of alternative investment strategies to Canadian retail investors and such investors will benefit from access to a new suite of investment products to help meet their financial goals.

If you have any questions regarding the Final Rules including how to launch an alternative mutual fund, a member of the McMillan's Investment Funds and Asset Management Group would be pleased to assist you.

[1] Undertakings for Collective Investment in Transferable Securities Directive 2009 (a regulatory framework of the European Commission that creates a harmonized regime throughout Europe for the management and sale of mutual funds).

[2] Investment Company Act of 1940 (United States).

[3] Section 2.1(2) of NI 81-102 states that the 20% concentration limit does not apply to the purchase of any of the following: (a) a government security; (b) a security issued by a clearing corporation; (c) a security issued by an investment fund if the purchase is made in accordance with the requirements of section 2.5 of NI 81-102; (d) an index participation unit that is a security of an investment fund; and (e) an equity security if the purchase is made by a fixed portfolio investment fund in accordance with its investment objectives.

[4] "illiquid asset" means (a) a portfolio asset that cannot be readily disposed of through market facilities on which public quotations in common use are widely available at an amount that at least approximates the amount at which the portfolio asset is valued in calculating the net asset value per security of the investment fund, or (b) a restricted security held by an investment fund. A "restricted security" means a security, other than a specified derivative, the resale of which is restricted or limited by a representation, undertaking or agreement by the investment fund or by the investment fund's predecessor in title, or by law.

[5] Amendments have been made to section 5.2 of NI 81-107 to codify this requirement.

[6] Exchange-traded fund ("ETF").

[7] Alternative funds listed on an exchange will be required to use a long form prospectus and ETF facts.

The foregoing provides only an overview and does not constitute legal advice. Readers are cautioned against making any decisions based on this material alone. Rather, specific legal advice should be obtained.

© McMillan LLP 2018

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Michael Burns
Shahen A. Mirakian
Jason A. Chertin
Jeffrey P. Gebert
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Stikeman Elliott LLP
Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Stikeman Elliott LLP
Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP
Related Articles
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions