Worldwide: Landlord Liability For Trademark And Copyright Infringement – Coming Soon To Canadian Premises Near You?

In Canada, there is no clear precedent to hold a landlord liable as a non-participating intermediary for the sale of counterfeits by its tenants. This differs from the position in the United States, China, and Europe, where liability has been extended to non-participating landlords who have knowledge of the illegal activity. In Canada, if a landlord is directly involved in the sale of counterfeits and has sufficient control over the tenant, the Canadian courts have extended liability to the landlord. But in circumstances where the landlord is not directly involved, the Canadian courts have not yet considered whether liability should be extended to the landlord.

A proceeding commenced in Ontario in 2016 by Louis Vuitton may alter the status quo and provide rights holders with a new enforcement strategy against intermediary landlords who knowingly assist in or facilitate the sale of counterfeits by their tenants. In the Louis Vuitton proceeding, it is alleged that the landlords are liable for contributory trademark and copyright infringement of and/or are vicariously liable for the infringements by their tenants. In this paper we review the position on intermediary liability of landlords in several countries and provide a summary of the options and strategies available in Canada to pursue a cause of action against an intermediary landlord for intellectual property infringements by its tenant.


Counterfeiting and piracy continue to grow each year despite the concerted efforts of rights holders to tackle these issues. Several factors contribute to the problem, including globalization of the economy, the ease of international trade, the sophistication of today's infringers, and the multiplicity of supply chain intermediaries who together facilitate the ultimate supply of such goods to consumers.

Direct infringers generally perceive legal actions taken against them by rights holders as mere operational costs in what is otherwise a very lucrative business. Rights holders have therefore begun shifting their focus to a variety of intermediaries involved in the supply chain, including landlords, transport operators, suppliers of parts and materials, operators of online platforms, sale and social media sites, Internet service providers, and payment processors.

Pursuing intermediaries, in addition to the ultimate sellers and their suppliers, offers a potentially more effective solution to rights holders by either allowing them to hamper the infringer's supply chain, or to prevent the manufacture of the infringing goods altogether. In today's climate of enhanced corporate compliance and corporate social responsibility, this solution is more effective as legitimate intermediaries often prefer to be seen as publicly cooperating with rights holders to address counterfeiting concerns.

This article focuses on landlord liability for counterfeiting, particularly in the context of trademark and copyright infringement, where landlords provide the physical site for the sale of infringing goods. We begin with a brief summary of the bases for landlord liability in the context of trademark infringement in the United States, China, Australia, and the European Union. We then consider the readiness of the Canadian legal landscape for such a claim, and the potential causes of action on which such a claim might be based.

Landlord Liability in the United States, China, Australia, and the European Union


The United States courts have long grappled with the question of whether a landlord may be held liable for the sale of counterfeit goods by its tenants.

As early as 1982, the Supreme Court of the United States recognized the concept of contributory liability for trademark infringement with respect to manufacturers and distributors in Inwood Laboratories Inc v Ives Laboratories Inc, 456 US 844 (1982). The Court stated that to establish contributory liability for trademark infringement, a plaintiff must show that the defendant either intentionally induced a third party to infringe or that it continued to supply a product to the infringer knowing that the product would be used to facilitate infringement.

Building on the principles set out in Inwood Laboratories, the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit confirmed that a landlord who rents a premises to a tenant knowing, or being willfully blind to the fact that the premises is being used to sell counterfeit merchandise may be contributorily liable for trademark infringement: Hard Rock Café Licensing Corporation Inc v Concession Services Inc., 955 F (2d) 1143 (7th Cir 1992). This finding was confirmed in subsequent actions.

Despite having existed for more than a decade, the concept of landlord liability in the context of intellectual property infringements first garnered significant attention in 2005, when Louis Vuitton Malletier SA set its sights on New York's Canal Street, a notorious market for counterfeits. Louis Vuitton commenced an action against the landlord and owner of several buildings on Canal Street, seeking an injunction enjoining him and his tenants from selling counterfeit Louis Vuitton goods. To establish knowledge, Louis Vuitton relied on its prior written notifications of infringing conduct to the landlord and the fact that the premises had also been subject to several nuisance abatement actions by New York City authorities. The United States District Court of the Southern District of New York granted Louis Vuitton a preliminary injunction enjoining the landlord and his tenants from selling counterfeit Louis Vuitton merchandise on the properties. Pursuant to an order of the Court, the landlord agreed to evict tenants found to be selling counterfeit goods and allow routine inspections of the properties for counterfeit goods, among other things. This decision was widely lauded as a significant step forward in the landlord liability space, and led to a string of subsequent cases.


Around the same time, Louis Vuitton, together with other brand owners, including Burberry, Gucci, Prada, and Chanel, turned their attention to Beijing's Silk Market, another notorious counterfeiting hotspot. The brands filed actions against several infringing vendors and the landlord of the market itself. They argued that the landlord, who was repeatedly notified of infringing conduct by specific vendors had knowledge of the infringing activities occurring on the property and intentionally continued to facilitate the sale of counterfeits by renting the premises to the known infringers. The Beijing No. 2 High People's Court found that following notification of the infringing activities of its tenants, the landlord had an obligation to act in a "timely and effectively" manner to prevent such infringements from continuing. By failing to take any such steps, the landlord was found jointly and severally liable for the infringements. The decision was upheld on appeal.

China has since codified landlord liability for trademark infringement in national and local legislation and regulations. Under this legislation, a landlord may be held: (i) jointly and severally liable for aiding and abetting a third party in the commission of an infringement of the exclusive right to use a registered trademark; or (ii) contributorily liable for trademark infringement if the landlord intentionally facilitates or assists a third party in committing an infringement by providing business premises to the third party. Rights holders have successfully relied on this legislation and various local regulations to prosecute landlords alongside their infringing tenants.


Diverging from the global trend, the Australian Federal Court declined to hold either the landlord of a market or its manager liable as joint tortfeasors for the trademark infringements of its tenants in Louis Vuitton Malletier SA v Toea Pty Ltd, [2006] FCA 1443.

At the outset, the Court noted that there was no provision in Australian trademark legislation that "extends civil liability to 'secondary' tortfeasors"; therefore any argument with respect to liability must be based in general tort law. To establish joint liability in tort, Louis Vuitton was required to show that the market owner and the tenants acted "in concert in committing the tort" for the purpose of furthering a "common design". Louis Vuitton argued that the common design was the financial success of the market achieved through the individual success of the vendors. The Court refused to accept Louis Vuitton's argument that this shared goal could constitute a common design. Further, the Court stated that it would be "virtually impossible" for the market owner to prevent its tenants from selling counterfeit goods on the premises, and that the landlord had taken effective steps to halt infringement when it accepted assurances from its tenants that they would cease sales of counterfeit goods on the property. It still remains an open question in Australia whether different circumstances, where the landlord takes less steps to halt infringements on its premises than in the Louis Vuitton case, might give rise to landlord liability for intellectual property infringements by its tenants.


In 2016, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) in Tommy Hilfiger Licensing and Others, C-494/15, EU:C:2016:528, was asked, by way of reference from the Czech Supreme Court, to interpret Article 11 of Directive 2004/48/EC of European Parliament and of the Council, to determine whether landlords who rent space to third parties selling counterfeit goods are "...intermediaries whose services are used by a third party to infringe an intellectual property right", and if so, whether the conditions for an injunction granted against a brick and mortar landlord pursuant to Article 11 should be the same as the conditions set out in L'Oreal and Others, C-324/09, EU:C:2011:474.

Tommy Hilfiger was commenced in the Czech Republic by several rights holders including Tommy Hilfiger, Burberry, and Lacoste against the owner of Delta Markets in Prague. Relying on Czech law, the brands requested that the market owner, who leased the stalls to vendors, be enjoined from continuing to lease stalls to tenants known to sell infringing products.

Building on its decision in L'Oreal, the CJEU found that there was no distinction to be made between an online marketplace and a brick and mortar marketplace; therefore brick and mortar landlords may be equally liable as online intermediaries in providing a service used for infringement. The Court also noted that the conditions for an injunction against a brick and mortar landlord are identical to those in L'Oreal, being that the injunction is "effective and dissuasive".


Canadian courts have yet to consider a "traditional" landlord liability action for intellectual property infringements by its tenants. Thus far, the Federal Court of Canada has issued decisions in two actions where a landlord was found liable for the infringements of its tenants, though in both cases the landlord was found to be an active participant in the tenant's business and to have sufficient control over that business: Chanel v Lam Chan Kee Co, 2015 FC 1091 and Louis Vuitton Malletier SA v Yang, 2007 FC 1179. While these decisions are not true intermediary landlord liability cases, they do demonstrate the courts' readiness to extend liability beyond the infringer itself.

In June 2016, Louis Vuitton commenced an action in the Ontario Superior Court against flea market owners. The company claims the landlords are directly, contributorily and vicariously liable for the advertising, sale and offering for sale of counterfeit Louis Vuitton merchandise by the landlords' vendors as they knew, ought to have known, or were wilfully blind to the sale of the counterfeits on their premises and by their actions or omissions contributed to or facilitated the harm to the brand. Amongst the usual infringement remedies, Louis Vuitton is seeking an order directing the landlords to terminate leases with vendors selling counterfeits.

The Louis Vuitton proceeding against the landlord, if successful at trial, may provide rights holders with new enforcement strategies against intermediary landlords who knowingly assist in or facilitate the sale of counterfeits by their tenants.

Below, we review the law of joint tortfeasorship (contributory infringement and vicarious liability) in Canada and also consider a recent decision of the Supreme Court of Canada that might assist rights holders in taking action against landlords.

Both contributory infringement and vicarious liability are principles of joint tortfeasorship. Joint tortfeasorship is a common law doctrine of tort law where two or more persons or entities can be jointly liable as tortfeasors where:

  1. one is the principal of or vicariously liable for another; or
  2. there is a concerted action between them to a common end (sometimes referred to as "contributory infringement" in the intellectual property field).

Vicarious Liability

Under the doctrine of vicarious liability, a principal may be legally responsible for torts committed by its agent. This begs the question, what is an agent? Agency is the relationship that exists between two persons when one (the agent) is considered in law to represent the other (the principal) in such a way as to be able to affect the principal's legal position. In order to establish liability of the principal, the infringing acts of the agent must fall within the express, implied or apparent authority of the agent. It is also important that the agent be under the control of the alleged principal. The greater that control, the greater the likelihood that the principles of agency apply. When an agency relationship is found, the principal will be jointly and severally liable with the agent who commits the tort.

Under traditional vicarious liability law, in examining the facts to determine whether an agency relationship exists, the courts will look at the nature of any consent provided by the parties and the authority given to the alleged agent.

In regard to the sale of counterfeits in Canada, to successfully find liability against a landlord as a principal of its tenant, one must have evidence to prove that the relationship is a close one where the landlord controls the activities of the tenants with respect to what they sell and the tenant's intellectual property infringing activities result from instructions given by the landlord. It may also be necessary to prove that the tenant's infringing activities would not have occurred but for the instructions, knowledge and assistance of the landlord.

At trial, evidence going to the nature of the relationship will be materially important. For example, if the evidence demonstrates that the landlord was aware of the ongoing intellectual property infringements but played only a minor role in an arm's-length tenant's business, the facts may not support a claim for vicarious liability. The more knowledge the landlord has of the intellectual property infringements and the more control the landlord exerts over the tenant, the more likely a claim is to succeed. For example, in both Chanel v Lam Chan Kee Co and Louis Vuitton Malletier SA v Yang, the facts pointed to the landlord having the requisite knowledge of the infringing activities and control over the primary infringer; so liability was found to lie against the landlord. Even though the Chanel v Lam Chan Kee Co case was primarily focused on the direct liability of the landlord/owner, the facts are useful to demonstrate how control by a landlord over a tenant can help support a liability claims against a landlord.

A Concerted Action to a Common End (Contributory Infringement)

Under the common law doctrine of acting pursuant to a common design, a landlord may be jointly liable with its tenants for infringements of its tenants where the landlord has substantially assisted the tenant to infringe. While there is no bright line test for what level of assistance will attract liability, it is clear that a trivial amount of assistance would not be sufficient to establish liability against a landlord.

For the doctrine to apply, three conditions must be met:

  • the landlord must have assisted the commission of the infringement by the tenant;
  • the assistance must have been pursuant to a common design on the part of the landlord and the tenant that the act be committed; and
  • the act must constitute a tort as against the rights holder.

A fourth factor usually considered in the factual matrix is the extent to which the landlord has knowledge of the actions of its tenants. Without this knowledge, it seems unlikely that a landlord will be held to have pursued a "common design" with its tenants and be found liable. It is clear, however, that even where the landlord knows of the infringing activities of its tenants, the other three factors must also be satisfied.

Canadian courts have emphasized that the tort must be kept within reasonable bounds. While courts may find liability where a party assists a primary actor in the commission of a tort, they will likely decline to do so where a party merely facilitates the tort, even if it does so with knowledge of the primary actor's intentions. To lower this bar may be to impose liability in circumstances where it is unjustified, even for public policy reasons.

Applying the traditional test articulated above to the sale of counterfeits, for a landlord to be found liable, a plaintiff must show that the landlord somehow aided, abetted, induced, or procured in the commission of the intellectual property infringements and that he/she committed these acts in concert with the tenant with a common goal in mind and with specific knowledge of the infringements. To establish this, a plaintiff must gather relevant evidence, which might include evidence of communications between the landlord and tenant showing that the landlord encouraged the tenant to sell counterfeits, or evidence that the landlord and tenant were engaged in a commercial venture above and beyond the lessor/lessee relationship.

Evidence establishing the landlord knew of the intellectual property infringements will also be material. For example, the landlord should have specific knowledge, rather than a generalized knowledge, of the sales by the tenant of counterfeit products. For this reason, rights holders ought to formally notify the landlord of a tenant's intellectual property infringing activities to fix the landlord with knowledge. Other facts such as police raids on the landlord's premises may also serve to establish that the landlord had the requisite knowledge.

The question remains: what if the landlord has knowledge of the intellectual property infringements but the evidence does not prove that the landlord and tenant acted pursuant to common design that the acts of infringement be committed?

A New Basis for Liability?

A June 2017 decision of the Supreme Court of Canada, Google Inc. v. Equustek Solutions Inc, 2017 SCC 34, suggests at least in the law of equity, a third party may be held to owe some form of a duty to assist a rights holder in preventing infringement of its rights. If this principle were extended to cover the liability of a landlord for facilitating (rather than inducing) infringement by its tenants, it could be a valuable tool for Canadian rights holders.

In the Google case, it was held that Canadian courts have jurisdiction to make orders against search engines like Google who, even though they themselves are not guilty of any wrongdoing, facilitate the infringement by defendants of trademark rights online.

Although there were several bases relied upon by the Court to make this finding, one basis is particularly relevant to this paper: the equitable jurisdiction of courts to make orders against third parties that facilitate the commission of a wrong or an infringement. The Court in Google referred in part to the decision of the English Court of Appeal in Cartier International AG & Ors v British Sky Broadcasting Ltd & Ors, [2016] EWCA Civ 658, which affirmed the jurisdiction of English courts to make blocking orders against Internet service providers requiring them to disable access to websites that offered counterfeit goods for sale.

In Cartier, the Court held that injunctive relief could be awarded against non-party Internet service providers whom were not accused of any wrongful act and had not engaged in a wrongful act. They were innocent but because the Internet service providers were held to have knowledge of the intellectual property infringements that they were unwittingly facilitating they were ordered to block access to certain websites by their customers so as to limit any further facilitation of infringement. Knowledge by the Internet service providers of the on-going infringements was a key part of the decision by the English Court to grant an injunction against a non-party.

So how can the Google decision be used to assist in enforcement against landlords? The authors view two primary options. The first option would be to start a proceeding against a tenant, put the landlord on notice of the intellectual property infringements, and, if the landlord fails to take meaningful steps to address the infringements, seek an interlocutory order enjoining the landlord from further facilitating the intellectual property infringements. The second option would be to rely upon the equitable principles of the Google decision as grounds for seeking relief against a landlord on the basis that a landlord's knowledge of the intellectual property infringements and the landlord's continued facilitation of the infringements is sufficient to provide the Court with equitable jurisdiction to grant a permanent injunction over the landlord after trial to cease facilitating the infringements.


To establish liability over a landlord in Canada for a tenant's sales of counterfeit products, generally speaking a rights holder needs to prove the elements of knowledge and control sufficient to prove joint tortfeasorship. As the case law in Canada develops, cases that have facts proving a high degree of knowledge and control are likely to be the most successful. It is hoped that the Louis Vuitton proceeding in Ontario will establish jurisprudence directly on this point i.e. that a landlord can be liable for the infringing activities of its tenant in broader circumstances than at present under Canadian law.

Rights holders wishing to enforce against landlords will need to take steps to ensure that the landlord has the required knowledge and that a good evidentiary record exists for use at trial. This can be done before proceedings are commenced through cease and desist letters, undercover investigations, and working with the relevant authorities to have raids conducted on the landlord's premises. It can also be done at trial by proving evidence of previous civil or legal proceedings against the tenants and the landlord's knowledge of these events. Where a landlord thereafter fails to take meaningful steps to decrease the infringements, or where the landlord continues to facilitate the infringements, a stronger case may exist for liability.

This article originally appeared in the World Trademark Review and has been republished with permission.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Events from this Firm
23 Jan 2018, Seminar, London, UK

Join Gowling WLG's pensions team as they explain some of the biggest challenges facing trustees and employers in the coming year and provide practical ways of dealing with them.

25 Jan 2018, Seminar, Birmingham, UK

2018 is set to be another big year in employment, with employers set to face new challenges and responsibilities. At our event, looking ahead to next year, we will be discussing four key issues you might face in 2018, providing useful tips and answering your questions.

2 Feb 2018, Seminar, London, UK

2018 is set to be another big year in employment, with employers set to face new challenges and responsibilities. At our event, looking ahead to next year, we will be discussing four key issues you might face in 2018, providing useful tips and answering your questions.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:
  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.
  • Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.
    If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here
    If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here

    Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

    Use of

    You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


    Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

    The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


    Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

    • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
    • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
    • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

    Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

    Information Collection and Use

    We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

    We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

    Mondaq News Alerts

    In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


    A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

    Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

    Log Files

    We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


    This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

    Surveys & Contests

    From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


    If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


    From time to time Mondaq may send you emails promoting Mondaq services including new services. You may opt out of receiving such emails by clicking below.

    *** If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of services offered by Mondaq you may opt out by clicking here .


    This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

    Correcting/Updating Personal Information

    If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

    Notification of Changes

    If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

    How to contact Mondaq

    You can contact us with comments or queries at

    If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.

    By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions