This Climate Change Bulletin is part of a series that
will be prepared periodically by BLG's Climate Change
Group to alert our clients to emerging issues and initiatives
that are relevant to their businesses and strategic interests.
Future Climate Change Bulletins and Alerts will review and
consider issues facing various provinces as well as different
industrial sectors. Comments and questions are always welcome
and should be directed to the authors.
Ontario's GHG Reduction Plans
On Friday July 18, 2008, Ontario Premier Dalton McGuinty
announced that the Province is slated to become the newest
member of the Western Climate Initiative ("WCI").
As part of the announcement, the Ontario government
identified its commitment to phase out coal-fired electricity
by 2014, to reduce its GHG emissions targets of 6% below 1990
levels by 2014 and 15% by 2020 and 80% by 2050, its partnership
with Québec in developing a cap-and-trade system, its
public transit investments and the protection of the Northern
Ontario Boreal region (which can absorb 12.5 million tonnes of
carbon dioxide each year).
Western Climate Initiative
The WCI was established in February 2007 through the
commitment of several U.S. states to reduce GHGs through
various market-based programs. The WCI is comprised of various
committees that oversee economic research and analysis, develop
stakeholder consultation plans and set out targets and GHG
reduction program recommendations. This group is a coalition of
U.S states and Canadian provinces that develop regional
strategies to combat climate change. At the present time,
Manitoba, British Columbia and Québec are the Canadian
provinces represented. Arizona, California, New Mexico, Utah,
Oregon and Washington represent the U.S. states. Government
members must have developed greenhouse gas emission
("GHG") reduction strategies to gain entry. These
include economy wide GHG reduction goals consistent with the
WCI partners, development of a multi-sector climate change
action plan, agreement to adopt GHG tail pipe standards for
vehicles, and participation in The Climate Registry.
In August 2007, the WCI set GHG emission reduction targets
of 15% below 2005 levels by 2020. According to the
"Statement of Regional Goal", this reduction target
is an economy-wide goal consistent with the emission goals of
the WCI partners and does not replace the partners'
existing goals. The Regional Goal is based on:
The aggregation of GHG emissions and emissions goals of
Currently available state or province emission
Gross emission estimates, across all sectors, for the six
GHG reported to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change
by US Environmental Protection Agency's GHG Inventory
and Environment Canada's National Inventory Report;
Consumption-based (or load-based) emissions estimates for
the electricity sector.
In May 2008, the WCI released its draft program
recommendations for GHG reductions to achieve the 15% below
2005 levels target by 2020. Those recommendations call for a
regional cap-and-trade program in addition to the programs
currently underway in member states and provinces. These
recommendations are available at http://www.westernclimateinitiative.org.
The draft recommendations on the cap-and-trade program will
be the subject of a stakeholder workshop in San Diego on July
29, 2008. Further refinements to various recommendations in the
cap-and-trade program will emerge over the course of 2008.
Canada is a constitutional monarchy, a parliamentary democracy and a federation comprised of ten provinces and three territories. Canada's judiciary is independent of the legislative and executive branches of Government.
In Bank of Montreal v Bumper Development Corporation Ltd, 2016 ABQB 363, the Alberta Court of Queen's Bench enforced the "immediate replacement" provision in the Canadian Association of Petroleum Landmen 2007 Operating Procedure...
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