Canada: Les Employeurs Doivent Se Rallier À La Loi Omnibus | L'Espace RH

Last Updated: October 6 2017
Article by Hannah Roskey

Le projet de loi C-44[1] est la loi omnibus du gouvernement fédéral visant l'implémentation de certaines dispositions du budget de 2017.  Ce projet de loi contient également une réforme importante de la Loi sur l'assurance-emploi et du Code canadien du travail. Depuis le dépôt du projet de loi C‑44, de nombreuses provinces ont emboîté le pas en proposant des modifications semblables à leur législation provinciale sur le travail et l'emploi. Ces modifications confirment une tendance dans le domaine du travail et de l'emploi d'avoir recours à des procédures réglementaires en matière d'application de la loi, ainsi qu'une évolution vers une réglementation davantage favorable aux employés, particulièrement en ce qui a trait aux avantages sociaux et aux congés. Il est important pour les employeurs d'être au fait de ces changements qui seront apportés tant sur le plan fédéral que provincial.

Législation fédérale

Le projet de loi C-44 du gouvernement federal a été promulgué le 22 juin 2017. Trois parties de celui-ci sont entrées en vigueur à cette date, tandis que les parties portant sur les modifications au régime de l'assurance-emploi entreront en vigueur à une date ultérieure qui sera déterminée par le gouvernement.

Ce projet de loi prévoit apporter de nombreuses modifications à la Loi sur l'assurance-emploi, notamment :

  • Un ajout supplémentaire de 26 semaines à la période de prestations parentales actuelles, pour un total de 61 semaines;
  • La possibilité pour les mères biologiques de recevoir leur prestations sur une période plus longue, mais à un taux réduit de prestations;
  • Le versement de prestations de maternité dès la douzième semaine précédant la date prévue de l'accouchement, soit une augmentation de la période actuelle de huit semaines;
  • La création de prestations pour les membres de la famille d'un adulte ou d'un enfant gravement malade qui doivent prendre soin de celui-ci (proches-aidants).

Parallèlement, le Code canadien du travail sera également modifié afin d'augmenter légèrement la durée maximale du congé parental et du congé de maternité et de créer un congé de proche-aidant pour les employés du secteur fédéral.

En outre, les modifications qui seront apportées au Code canadien du travail élargissent de façon importante les pouvoirs du Conseil canadien des relations industrielles (le « CCRI ») en lui conférant les pouvoirs, les obligations et les fonctions accordées aux agents d'appel en vertu du Code canadien du travail. Le CCRI aura maintenant le pouvoir d'examen de ce qui suit :

  • Des décisions relatives aux congédiements injustes d'employés non syndiqués;
  • Des plaintes relatives aux représailles;
  • Des appels portant sur les pénalités imposées en vertu des dispositions du Code relatives à la santé et à la sécurité au travail ainsi qu'aux normes d'emploi.

Une loi omnibus pour tous

Alberta 

Des modifications analogues ont récemment été proposées en Alberta. Au terme d'une période de consultation publique, le projet de loi 17 intitulé Fair and Family-Friendly Workplaces Act[2], qui a été adopté par l'Assemblée législative de l'Alberta le 5 juin 2017, a reçu la sanction royale le 7 juin 2017. La plupart des modifications entreront en vigueur le 1er janvier 2018.

Afin d'harmoniser ses modifications à celles proposées par le gouvernement fédéral, l'Alberta réduira les délais d'admissibilité aux congés, augmentera la durée des congés existants et créera de nouveaux congés, notamment des congés de longue durée pour maladies et blessures, en cas de violence familiale ou pour apporter des soins à un enfant gravement blessé. Les autres changements comprennent des modifications relatives aux heures supplémentaires, aux indemnités de congé pour jours fériés, aux périodes de repos et à l'âge minimal, tous favorables aux employés.

Des modifications plus controversées seront également apportées. Entre autres, il sera plus facile pour les milieux de travail de se syndiquer. Plus particulièrement, un vote secret ne sera plus nécessaire si plus de 65 % des employés détiennent des cartes d'adhésion. Ces modifications comprennent également de nouvelles sanctions administratives, des procédures de vérification obligatoires et la possibilité d'inspections par des agents des normes d'emploi des lieux de travail en Alberta.

Ontario 

Le gouvernement de l'Ontario a, lui aussi, pris des mesures visant à mettre en place des lois plus favorables aux employés. Le 1er juin 2017, le projet de loi 148, la Loi de 2017 pour l'équité en milieu de travail et de meilleurs emplois, a été déposé. Ce projet de loi vise à apporter des changements importants à de nombreuses normes d'emploi minimales et au régime de relations de travail en Ontario.

Notre bulletin précédent a examiné en détail les changements législatifs prévus.[3]

À retenir pour les employeurs

Les prochains mois seront une période importante de changement pour les lois canadiennes dans les domains du travail et de l'emploi. Les employeurs devraient passer en revue leurs politiques et procédures actuellement en place ainsi que les documents afférents pour s'assurer de leur conformité aux nouvelles exigences. La direction et le personnel devraient être informés des changements à venir et formés afin de pouvoir répondre aux questions à cet égard. Les employeurs devraient également être au fait des pouvoirs accrus des représentants du gouvernement et des tribunaux administratifs en matière d'application et d'administration de la loi dans les domaines du travail et de l'emploi. Compte tenu de la direction que prennent le gouvernement fédéral et certains gouvernements provinciaux, les employeurs qui contreviennent aux lois du travail et de l'emploi risquent de se voir imposer plus rapidement des sanctions plus sévères.

Footnotes

[1]  Le projet de loi C-44

[2]  Fair and Family-Friendly Workplaces Act (disponible en anglais seulement)

[3]  Les employeurs de l'Ontario se préparent à une restructuration législative du droit du travail 

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