Canada: 2017 Federal Budget – Business Income Tax Measures

The Budget makes no changes to corporate tax rates. In addition, no changes are made to eligibility for the small business rate.

Tax Planning Using Private Corporations

The government's review of federal tax expenditures highlighted issues in respect of tax planning strategies available to owners of private corporations. The government feels that these strategies can result in high-income individuals gaining unfair tax advantages not available to other Canadians. As the Budget papers indicate, measures have been put in place over the years to limit the scope of certain of these arrangements. However, the government is of the opinion that such measures have not always been as effective as desired. Accordingly, the government is further reviewing the use of private corporation tax planning strategies that may reduce the personal tax of high-income earners in a manner considered inappropriate. In particular, the government has identified the following strategies for review:

  • Income sprinkling — causing income that would be taxable to an individual at a high rate to be realized by, and therefore taxed in the hands of, a family member subject to a lower marginal tax rate, commonly achieved through dividends or capital gains
  • Holding of portfolio investments — corporate tax rates on ordinary business income are generally much lower than personal rates; retaining income in a private corporation can therefore facilitate accumulation of a larger pool of funds for investment
  • Conversion of regular income into capital gains — causing income that would normally be paid to the shareholder as salary or dividend to be converted to capital gains, taxed at a significantly lower tax rate. As part of its review of this area, the government will also examine current legislation that may have inappropriate tax consequences in connection with genuine business transactions between family members, including inter-generational transfers of family businesses. In the coming months, a paper will be released that will review these issues in detail and provide proposed policy responses.

Billed-Basis Accounting

Members of designated professions (accountants, dentists, lawyers, medical doctors, veterinarians and chiropractors) may elect to exclude the value of their work in progress (WIP) in computing their income. Where this election is made, a tax deferral is achieved as the costs associated with the WIP are deducted as incurred whereas the revenue is recognized only when the WIP is actually billed to clients.

The Budget proposes to eliminate the WIP exclusion over a two-year period, effective for taxation years beginning after March 21, 2017. For the first affected taxation year, WIP will be valued at 50 per cent of the lesser of its cost and fair market value and must be recognized for tax purposes and not excluded from income. For subsequent years, WIP, valued at the lesser of its cost and fair market value, must be recognized for tax purposes and cannot be excluded from income.

These provisions will require a determination of the cost of the WIP, which may not be readily available.

Meaning of Factual Control

There are two main definitions of control for tax purposes — de jure or legal control and de facto or factual control. Some provisions rely on de jure control whereas others rely on de facto control.

De facto control is broader than legal control and takes into account influence, that, if exercised, would result in control in fact of a corporation. It is particularly relevant for purposes of determining whether or not corporations are associated and therefore required to share the annual $500,000 small business deduction limit and certain other limits.

Recent jurisprudence essentially restricted control in fact to circumstances where the potential controller has an enforceable right to change the board of directors or its powers or can exercise influence over shareholders who have the right and ability to make such changes. The Budget proposes to effectively override the case law. For taxation years beginning after March 21, 2017, all factors relevant in the particular situation, not just those that meet the criteria set out in the recent jurisprudence, shall be included in assessing whether or not de facto control is present.

Distribution of T4 Information Slips

Effective for 2017, employers will not be required to obtain express consent from employees to electronically distribute T4s (Statement of Remuneration Paid). Privacy policy safeguards specified by the Minister of National Revenue will be required to be in place before an employer can electronically distribute T4s without employee consent.

Timing of Recognition of Gains and Losses on Derivatives

Derivatives are sophisticated financial instruments whose value is derived from the value of an underlying security. The Budget proposes two measures that clarify the timing of the recognition of gains and losses from derivatives held on income account.

In the past, there was uncertainty as to whether taxpayers could mark to market their derivatives held on income account under the general principles of profit computation. A recent Federal Court of Appeal decision allowed the use of the mark-to-market method for a taxpayer which was not a financial institution on the basis that it provided an accurate picture of the taxpayer's income.

To provide certainty regarding the choice of using the mark-to-market method, the Budget proposes an elective mark-to-market regime for derivatives held on income account so that taxpayers will be allowed to mark to market all of their eligible derivatives for taxation years beginning after March 21, 2017. Once made, the election will remain effective for all subsequent years unless revoked with the consent of the Minister of National Revenue.

A straddle transaction is one in which a taxpayer concurrently enters into two or more positions, often derivative positions, that are expected to generate equal and offsetting gains and losses on account of income. In order to obtain a tax deferral, the position with the accrued loss would be disposed of in one taxation year to realize the loss and the offsetting position with the accrued gain would be disposed of to realize the gain in the following taxation year. In addition, the taxpayer could attempt to indefinitely defer the recognition of the gain by entering into successive straddle transactions.

The Budget proposes to introduce a specific anti-avoidance "stop-loss" rule, which will effectively defer the realization of any loss on the disposition of a position to the extent of any unrealized gain inherent in an offsetting position. This proposal will apply to any loss realized on a position entered into after March 21, 2017.

Investment Fund Mergers

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds can be structured as either corporations or trusts. The Income Tax Act (ITA) currently contains provisions that facilitate the merger of mutual funds on a tax-deferred basis. Two mutual fund trusts can be merged into one or a mutual fund corporation can be merged into a mutual fund trust. The current rules do not provide for the reorganization of a mutual fund corporation into multiple mutual fund trusts.

"Switch mutual fund corporations" are structured with multiple classes of shares that are each traced to a pool or fund of assets of the corporation. Investors switch underlying funds by exchanging one class of shares for another. The benefits of such structures were eliminated in the 2016 Budget by deeming the share exchanges to be fair market value dispositions.

The Budget proposes to allow the tax-deferred restructuring of a switch corporation into multiple mutual fund trusts. In order to qualify, in respect of each class of shares of the switch corporation, all or substantially all (generally interpreted as 90 per cent or more) of the assets allocable to that class must be transferred to a mutual fund trust and the shareholders of that class must become unit holders of the trust. This measure will be applicable to qualifying reorganizations occurring on or after March 22, 2017.

Segregated Funds

Segregated funds are life insurance policies that have many of the characteristics of mutual fund trusts. Unlike mutual fund trusts, segregated funds cannot currently merge on a tax-deferred basis.

The Budget proposes to allow tax-deferred mergers of segregated funds under rules similar to those for mutual fund trusts. The Budget also proposes that non-capital losses in segregated funds arising in taxation years beginning after 2017 will be able to be carried over to apply against income of other years under the normal rules (back 3 years and forward 20 years). Loss application will be restricted after a segregated fund merger.

To give the life insurance industry the opportunity to comment on the proposed new rules, the merger rules will be applicable for mergers carried out after 2017.

Clean Energy Generation Equipment

Capital cost allowance (CCA) classes 43.1 and 43.2 provide for accelerated CCA on clean energy generation equipment. The Budget expands the assets qualifying for these classes to include geothermal energy equipment used primarily for the purpose of generating heat or a combination of heat and electricity and certain equipment in district energy systems that use geothermal heating as an energy source.

Canadian renewable and conservation expenses may be deducted in the year incurred, carried forward indefinitely for use in future years or transferred to investors through a flow-through share mechanism. The Budget proposes to include expenses incurred to determine the quality and extent of geothermal resources and the cost of geothermal drilling for electricity and heating projects in this category.

The measures are applicable for new property acquired for use and expenses incurred after March 21, 2017.

Resource Measures

Expenditures in respect of drilling or completing a discovery well, including building access roads to or preparing the site for such wells, are currently classified as Canadian exploration expense (CEE, fully deductible in the year incurred). The Budget proposes to classify these expenditures as Canadian development expense (CDE, deductible on a 30 per cent declining-balance basis).

This measure will apply to expenses incurred after 2018, including those incurred in 2019 that could have been deemed incurred in 2018 under the "look-back" rule. Expenses incurred before 2021 pursuant to a written commitment to incur the expenses entered into before March 22, 2017, will still qualify as CEE.
Eligible small oil and gas corporations will no longer be able to treat their first $1 million of CDE as CEE. This measure will apply to expenses incurred after 2018, including those incurred in 2019 that could have been deemed incurred in 2018 under the "look-back" rule. Expenses incurred after 2018 and before April 2019 that are renounced to investors under a flow-through share agreement entered into after 2016 and before March 22, 2017, will be exempt from the new rules.

Child Care Space Investment Tax Credit

The Budget eliminates the investment tax credit for child care space expenditures incurred after March 21, 2017. Expenditures incurred before 2020 pursuant to written agreements entered into before March 22, 2017 will still be eligible for the investment tax credit.

Farming and Fishing Property Insurers

The Budget eliminates the tax exemption for farming and fishing property insurers. This exemption is based on the proportion of their gross premium income earned from insuring such property. This measure is effective for taxation years beginning after 2018.

Consultation on Cash Purchase Tickets

The Budget institutes a consultation on the tax deferral available in respect of deferred cash purchase tickets for deliveries of listed grains by farmers. Interested parties should submit their comments to the government by May 24, 2017.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions