Canada: Brevets - Revue de l'année

Last Updated: February 10 2017
Article by Ken Bousfield

Nous avons examiné un certain nombre de décisions intéressantes liées aux brevets en 2016. Outre les décisions portant spécifiquement sur les médicaments ou sur le Règlement sur les médicaments brevetés (avis de conformité) (RMBAC), le début de 2017 a été l'occasion de se pencher de nouveau sur les dossiers et les questions qui suivent.

1. Préclusion fondée sur les notes apposées au dossier
    Pollard Banknote c. BABN Technologies Corp.

La préclusion fondée sur les notes apposées au dossier (File Wrapper Estoppel) est une théorie bien développée depuis longtemps en droit des brevets américain. En revanche, au Canada, l'historique d'un dossier de poursuite de demande de brevet n'est pas généralement pas admissible dans les procédures ultérieures. Dans trois décisions1 remontant aux années 1950 et 1960, le juge Thorson, de la Cour de l'Échiquier (l'ancêtre de la Cour fédérale), a rejeté l'admissibilité de l'historique des dossiers de poursuite de demande de brevet. Curieusement, le juge Thorson s'est appuyé sur la décision américaine rendue dans Catalin Corp. of America v. Catalazuli Mfg. Co 2, une décision constituant l'une des pierres angulaires de la théorie de la préclusion fondée sur les notes apposées au dossier. Les décisions ont fait l'objet de critiques à l'époque3. Des décisions plus récentes se sont parfois graduellement approchées du principe de l'admissibilité. Cependant, dans l'affaire Pollard Banknote Limited c. BABN Technologies Corp., 2016 CF 883, la Cour fédérale du Canada n'était pas prête à accepter des positions manifestement contradictoires dans les poursuites de demande de brevet et les litiges. En octobre, Stephen Beney et Nicholas Aitken ont formulé des observations pertinentes à ce sujet, que l'on peut consulter à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id826.

2. Promesse du brevet et utilité
    AstraZeneca c. Apotex

Depuis l'affaire Turner c. Winter 4,  lorsqu'un inventeur a fait une divulgation précise et explicite quant au rendement ou à l'utilisation de son invention, celle-ci doit être à la hauteur de la description qui en est faite5. Toutefois, de récentes procédures intentées en vertu du RMBAC avaient tendance à présumer que tous les brevets s'accompagnent de « promesses », qu'elles existent ou non. Ainsi, dans une affaire ne portant pas sur les médicaments, il a été possible de passer outre à des promesses remarquablement explicites dont l'existence ne pouvait être niée6. La nature plutôt tordue de l'illusoire recherche de promesses a suscité la controverse, et elle a isolé le Canada de ses partenaires commerciaux américains et européens. La Cour suprême du Canada a autorisé le pourvoi en appel relativement à la décision de la Cour d'appel fédérale dans l'affaire AstraZeneca Canada Inc. c. Apotex Inc.7 sur cette question très litigieuse. En mars, Melanie Szweras et Scott MacKendrick ont formulé une opinion à ce sujet, consultable à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id742, tout comme Mike Fenwick à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id744 ainsi qu'Adam Bobker et Daniel MacKay à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id736.

3. Les problèmes causés par l'application de la loi sur Internet

La recherche d'une solution à la vente de marchandises contrefaites sur Internet représente souvent un énorme défi pour les titulaires de brevets, de marques de commerce, de droits d'auteur et de dessins industriels, et elle soulève d'épineuses questions d'extraterritorialité. Plutôt que de laisser les titulaires de droits de PI sans recours, la Cour d'appel de la Colombie-Britannique, dans l'affaire Google Inc. c. Equustek Solutions Inc.8, a délivré une injonction enjoignant Google de retirer des sites Web non seulement sur Google.ca, mais aussi sur Google.com. La Cour suprême du Canada a autorisé Google à porter la cause en appel. Adam Bobker et Janice Calzavara se sont penchés sur cette question à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id733.

4. Brevets et concurrence
    Nouvelles lignes directrices sur la propriété intellectuelle

Le Bureau de la concurrence a émis un ensemble de lignes directrices à jour concernant l'application de la Loi sur la concurrence au regard des brevets essentiels au respect des normes. Paul Horbal et Victor Krichker ont rédigé un article sur les nouvelles lignes directrices, que l'on peut consulter à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id815.

5. Autres sujets et affaires

Règle 216 – Procédures sommaires

En octobre, Alain Alphonse a examiné l'utilisation de la règle 216 de la Cour fédérale du Canada dans l'affaire Cascade Corporation c. Kinshofer GmbH 9 visant à résoudre par procédure sommaire un litige concernant un brevet. On peut lire l'article à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id825.

Article 8 du RMBAC – Ne peut être invoqué afin de fonder un recours pour enrichissement injuste

En février, Adam Bobker et Anastassia Trifonova ont porté leur attention sur le rejet par la Cour suprême du Canada de la tentative d'Apotex d'invoquer l'article 8 du RMBAC afin de fonder un recours pour enrichissement injuste dans l'affaire Apotex Inc. c. Eli Lilly and Company10. Il est possible de lire leur étude à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id683.

Article 8 de la Loi sur les brevets - Corrections - Gray Manufacturing

Le manque d'empressement du Bureau des brevets relativement à l'exercice du pouvoir discrétionnaire du commissaire pour corriger les documents déposés au Bureau a été remarquable ces dernières années. A cet égard, vous pouvez lire les commentaires de Ken Bousfield relativement à l'affaire Gray Manufacturing Company, Inc. c. Canada (procureur général)11 en cliquant à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id684.  

Inventions par des fonctionnaires – Brown c. Canada12

Dans une intervention qui a causé un certain émoi au sein de la profession, le gouvernement fédéral a essayé d'invoquer une disposition rarement utilisée de la Loi sur les brevets pour aller à l'encontre des intérêts raisonnables d'un titulaire de brevet dans une cause où l'inventeur aurait été un fonctionnaire. La Cour a fait preuve de scepticisme dans ce dossier. Noel Courage a formulé des observations à ce sujet à http://www.bereskinparr.com/Doc/id693.

Footnotes

1 O'Cedar of Canada Ltd. c. Mallory Hardware Products Ltd., (1956) 24 C.P.R. 103, Riddell c. Patrick Harrison & Co., (1957) 28 C.P.R. 85 et Lovell Mfg. Co. c. Beatty Bros. Ltd., (1962) 41 C.P.R. 18.

2 79 F. 2d 593 (1935), par L. Hand, 594, soulignant que la préclusion fondée sur les notes apposées au dossier devrait toujours s'appliquer lorsque le demandeur fait une modification de fond axée sur l'admissibilité, mais non lorsque la modification s'agit d'une formalité.

3 Voir la note rédactionnelle de Gordon Henderson dans Lovell, ci-dessus, par. 23, par exemple.

4 Turner c. Winter (1787), 1. Webst P.C. 77, 82, cité par le juge Parker dans Alsop's Patent (1907), 24 RPC 733, 753.

5 « [Si] le titulaire de brevet affirme qu'il peut produire trois choses au moyen d'un procédé et qu'il n'arrive pas à produire une seule de ces trois choses, l'examen du bien-fondé de l'invention, pour lequel le brevet a été délivré, ne donne pas les résultats escomptés, et la Couronne a été trompée dans l'octroi. » (Traduction)

6 Voir CA 2 207 787, p. 2, lignes 2 à 14; 2012; Eurocopter, s.a., c. Bell Helicopter Textron Canada, 2012 CF 113, confirmée par 2013 CAF 219.

7 AstraZeneca Canada Inc. c. Apotex Inc., 2015 CAF  158.

8 Equustek Solutions c. Google Inc., 2015 BCCA 265.

9 Cascade Corporation c. Kinshofer GmbH, 2016 CF 1117.

10 Apotex Inc. c. Eli Lilly and Co., 2015 ONCA 305.

11 Gray Manufacturing Company, Inc., c. Canada, 2016 CF 55.

12 Brown c. Canada, 2016 CAF 37.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Ken Bousfield
Events from this Firm
3 May 2017, Seminar, Toronto, Canada

Join Bereskin & Parr partners Susan Keri and Terry Edwards on Wednesday, May 3rd, 2017 for an in-depth discussion with prominent lawyers from the EU and UK about trademark issues for Canadian businesses doing or planning to do business in Europe.

 
In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of www.mondaq.com

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about Mondaq.com’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.

Disclaimer

Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.

Registration

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to unsubscribe@mondaq.com with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.

Cookies

A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.

Links

This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.

Mail-A-Friend

If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.

Security

This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to webmaster@mondaq.com.

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to EditorialAdvisor@mondaq.com.

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at enquiries@mondaq.com.

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at problems@mondaq.com and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.