Canada: Vous recevrez un drone cette année pour le temps des fêtes? Méfiez-vous des exigences de la loi!

Si vous êtes l'un des chanceux qui recevra un drone cette année comme un cadeau du temps des fêtes, prenez le temps de bien connaître vos responsabilités pour mieux voler en toute sécurité.

Si vous utilisez votre drone uniquement à des fins récréatives et que celui-ci pèse 35 kg ou moins, vous n'avez pas besoin d'une permission spéciale de Transport Canada. Par contre, vous devez suivre les consignes de base pour une utilisation sécuritaire et légale.

Voici des conseils de Transport Canada à suivre pour une utilisation plus sécuritaire et légale :

Toujours : Jamais :
  • Utilisez votre drone le jour et lorsqu'il fait beau.
  • Gardez votre drone dans votre champ de vision, sans avoir recours uniquement à une caméra, à un moniteur ou à un téléphone intelligent fixé à l'appareil.
  • Avant le décollage, assurez-vous que votre drone peut être utilisé en toute sécurité. Les piles ou les batteries sont-elles pleinement chargées? Fait-il trop froid?
  • Respectez la vie privée des autres : évitez de survoler des propriétés privées et de prendre des photos ou de faire des vidéos sans permission.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone dans les nuages ou du brouillard.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone à moins de 9 km (5 NM) d'un aérodrome (tout aéroport, héliport, hélisurface, hydrobase).
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone à plus de 90 m (300 pieds) d'altitude.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone à moins de 150 m (500 pieds) de personnes, d'animaux, de bâtiments, de structures ou de véhicules.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone dans des zones peuplées ou à proximité d'une foule, par exemple, pendant des activités sportives, des spectacles, des festivals ou des feux d'artifice.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone à proximité de véhicules en mouvement, d'autoroutes, de ponts, de rues achalandées ou de tout autre endroit où vous pourriez mettre les conducteurs en danger ou les distraire.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone dans un espace aérien réglementé ou contrôlé, par exemple, à proximité ou au-dessus de bases militaires, de prisons ou de feux de forêt.
  • N'utilisez pas votre drone dans une zone où vous pourriez nuire au travail de premiers intervenants.

Une utilisation risquée ou illégale peut engager votre responsabilité civile et/ou pénale. Par exemple, vous vous exposez à de graves conséquences, comme des amendes allant jusqu'à 25 000 $ ou une peine d'emprisonnement, ou les deux, si vous :

  • compromettez la sécurité des aéronefs;
  • utilisez votre appareil à un endroit où il est interdit de le faire; et/ou
  • mettez une personne en danger.

Ces situations ne sont pas purement théoriques, loin de là! En effet, selon un quotidien québécois, un drone léger qui volait dans le ciel du Vieux-Montréal s'est écrasé en plein boulevard Saint-Laurent, mardi après-midi, à quelques mètres des bureaux de La Presse et du palais de justice.

Le drone aurait « tombé du ciel entre deux voitures stationnées », selon le site web du quotidien. Heureusement dans cette histoire, il n'y avait pas de blessés. Mais les risques lorsqu'on ignore les conseils de sécurité et règlements, seront toujours présents.

Ce n'est donc pas étonnant de constater un développement actif de la technologie des drones pour minimiser ces risques. Par exemple, une demande de brevet déposée en 2014 propose d'équiper un drone avec des capteurs pour détecter la présence d'objets et modifier la trajectoire du drone afin d'éviter ces objets.

En bout de ligne : bien que l'utilisation des drones à des fins récréatives peut être très amusante, l'utilisation des drones d'une façon illégale peut mener à des amendes salées. Méfiez-vous des exigences de la loi!

Voler en toute sécurité... c'est intelligent et payant!


About Norton Rose Fulbright Canada LLP

Norton Rose Fulbright is a global law firm. We provide the world's preeminent corporations and financial institutions with a full business law service. We have 3800 lawyers and other legal staff based in more than 50 cities across Europe, the United States, Canada, Latin America, Asia, Australia, Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia.

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Wherever we are, we operate in accordance with our global business principles of quality, unity and integrity. We aim to provide the highest possible standard of legal service in each of our offices and to maintain that level of quality at every point of contact.

For more information about Norton Rose Fulbright, see nortonrosefulbright.com/legal-notices.

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