Canada: Les Créances Pécuniaires

Faits saillants

  • La créance pécuniaire est un concept en vigueur depuis le 1er janvier 2016.
  • La créance pécuniaire est une créance payable en argent uniquement.
  • La créance pécuniaire est due au débiteur par son créancier ou par un tiers.
  • L'hypothèque de la créance pécuniaire assure au créancier un premier rang, quelle que soit la date de son hypothèque sur la créance pécuniaire.
  • L'hypothèque de la créance pécuniaire est une sûreté occulte qui ne requiert pas de publication au RDPRM.
  • Plusieurs situations sont favorables aux créanciers pour obtenir une hypothèque sur une créance pécuniaire, par exemple :
    • le banquier pour le solde créditeur qu'il doit à son emprunteur;
    • le fournisseur pour les escomptes de volume ou autres rabais qu'il doit à son client.

1. Introduction

Le Code civil du Québec (C.C.Q.) contient, depuis le 1er janvier 2016, de nouvelles dispositions concernant les créances pécuniaires.

Avant ces nouvelles dispositions, le créancier qui devait une somme d'argent à son débiteur était protégé par une hypothèque mobilière sur la créance qu'il devait lui même à son débiteur. Dans tous les cas, le rang de cette hypothèque mobilière était sujet à toutes les autres hypothèques mobilières déjà consenties par le débiteur sur cette même créance.

2. Définition de la créance pécuniaire

La créance pécuniaire est une créance qui oblige le débiteur à rembourser une somme d'argent. Sous réserve de quelques exceptions prévues par le C.c.Q., la créance pécuniaire peut se définir comme la créance qui appartient au débiteur et qui lui est payable en argent par:

  1. son créancier; ou
  2. un tiers:
    1. en raison d'un solde créditeur au compte financier maintenu par le débiteur auprès de ce tiers, ou
    2. en raison d'une somme d'argent versée et remise par le débiteur à ce tiers pour garantir une obligation du débiteur envers un de ses créanciers.

Le concept de créance pécuniaire implique une relation à deux (2) parties ou une relation à trois (3) parties. Dans le premier cas, on retrouve obligatoirement un débiteur et son créancier dans une relation bipartite et, dans le second cas, on retrouve obligatoirement un débiteur, son créancier et un tiers dans une relation tripartite.

3. Créance pécuniaire – relation bipartite

Dans les cas où il n'y a que le débiteur et son créancier, la créance pécuniaire est la somme d'argent que doit le créancier à son débiteur. Dans ce contexte, comme dans le cas d'un banquier et de son emprunteur, chaque partie est à la fois débiteur et créancier de l'autre.

Sous réserve des exclusions prévues par le C.c.Q., n'importe quelle sorte de créances payables par le créancier à son débiteur peut se qualifier comme créance pécuniaire. La seule exigence est qu'il s'agisse d'une créance payable en argent, à l'exclusion de tout autre mode d'exécution. Par conséquent, de très nombreuses situations peuvent impliquer une créance pécuniaire.

4. Créance pécuniaire – relation tripartite

Le C.c.Q. prévoit également des situations où un tiers est impliqué, en plus évidemment du débiteur et de son créancier. Dans tous les cas de relation tripartite, le tiers est toujours le débiteur du débiteur du créancier.

5. Création de l'hypothèque avec dépossession sur la créance pécuniaire

Il faut d'abord spécifier que la sûreté sur la créance pécuniaire est une hypothèque mobilière avec dépossession. Le fait qu'il s'agisse d'une hypothèque avec dépossession implique le concept de la dépossession de la créance pécuniaire entre les mains du créancier. Cette dépossession est uniquement conceptuelle puisqu'il n'y a pas matériellement de remise par l'un, ni possession physique par l'autre Ensuite, il faut rappeler que l'hypothèque avec dépossession est dispensée de publication au RDPRM, ce qui en fait une sûreté occulte qui peut demeurer inconnue des autres créanciers, tout en leur étant opposable.

Entre un créancier et son débiteur, le C.c.Q. prévoit un mode de création très simple et sans aucun formalisme. Il suffit que le débiteur consente à ce que la créance pécuniaire qui lui est due par son créancier garantisse ce que le débiteur doit au créancier. Ce consentement peut être écrit, mais il peut aussi s'inférer de faits et circonstances.

Lorsque la créance pécuniaire est due par un tiers, le C.c.Q. prévoit deux modes différents de créer l'hypothèque mobilière avec dépossession, soit l'accord de maîtrise ou la maîtrise par la titularité du compte financier.

6. Rang de l'hypothèque avec dépossession grevant une créance pécuniaire

L'avantage marqué de l'hypothèque mobilière avec dépossession d'une créance pécuniaire est le rang que confère cette sûreté au créancier. L'hypothèque mobilière avec dépossession d'une créance pécuniaire confère au créancier un premier (1er) rang, devant toutes les hypothèques mobilières sans dépossession publiées au RDPRM et ce, quelle que soit sa date de création.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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