I would like to continue to discuss developing effective brand
The tangible attributes of a brand are frequently referred to as
brand expression. This is the visual identity of the brand and
includes the brand name and presentation of the brand name, product
packaging and product advertising, among other things.
Controlling Brand Expression
It can be difficult to control the graphic presentation of a
brand since many different parts of an organization may be
involved. The promotions, packaging, advertising, marketing and
event marketing departments as well as other areas of the
organization typically deal with brand expression and will likely
be managed by different individuals. In addition, advertising
agencies and other outside groups frequently have a part to play in
the graphic presentation of the brand.
Someone must be responsible for auditing and monitoring brand
expression and ensuring it is consistent with the brand strategy
and legal requirements. For this reason it is important to ensure
that standardized presentations or templates are available and used
by all relevant entities.
A brand manual can help establish uniformity in the display of
the visual components which make up the brand. The manual should
provide a set of written standards together with specific examples
which show exactly how the brand name, design presentation of the
brand name and slogans should appear in print advertising and on
product packaging. The same standards should also apply to all
advertising including advertisements in social media. Consistency
in this context is vitally important.
The manual should deal with the following matters, among
(a) brand name and presentation including specific colours to be
used, size and shape of type, style and size of presentation and
the relationship of the various parts of the brand name to each
(b) the placement of the brand name on product packaging and in
(c) the placement of slogans or other corporate or sub brands
when used with the brand name;
(d) emphasizing to employees the importance of monitoring the
marketplace concerning the activities of competitors, including the
name of a designated contact individual to whom the information
should be provided; and
(e) providing guidelines relating to trademark use including
spelling, capitalization and the use of trademark notices or
Instructions relating to "use" can help avoid
genericide through inappropriate use. For example XEROX Corporation
requests that people refer to XEROX brand photocopies and photocopy
machines instead of using such expressions as "make me a Xerox
of this document".
Similar considerations apply to product packaging which must
appropriately express the brand image. Master artwork templates
should be developed and used.
The existence of such manuals and master art templates should be
brought to the attention of all relevant employees through
appropriate training programs and communications. Employees should
know the rules. The use of such material can provide evidence of
systematic use of the brand name and assist in establishing the
extent to which the brand is known.
Software license agreements generally require the customer to pay fees for the software license and related services, which fees are usually based upon the duration of the license and the manner in which the customer is allowed to use the software, together with applicable taxes and withholdings.
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