Ownership of real property in Canada is governed primarily by provincial and territorial law, although there are also federal laws, such as the Goods and Services Tax, income tax, environmental protection legislation and foreign investment legislation that will apply. The laws of the nine "common law" provinces and the territories are substantially similar in their dealings with real property. Québec, which operates under a civil law system, is the exception. Notwithstanding the many differences which exist with respect to the law of real property in Québec, such differences are unlikely to be a major concern from a business perspective.
In Canada, investors may obtain interests in real property in a variety of different forms, including full "freehold" ownership, joint venture co-ownership and leasehold interests. In the common law provinces, the two basic forms recognized for co-ownership by more than one individual, partnership or corporation (or any combination thereof) are "joint tenants" and "tenants in common." Both forms of ownership permit the owners to hold undivided interests in the property as a whole and, unless otherwise agreed among them, the coowners are each entitled to the possession and use of the property. Some form of condominium legislation exists in most of the provinces. In Ontario, condominiums can be created for residential, commercial or industrial purposes.
Title to Real Property
Real property throughout Canada is conveyed by means of instruments in the forms prescribed by each of the provinces and territories. In Canada there are two systems of land recording. A "registry" or "registration of deeds" system is used in the Maritime provinces, Québec, and small parts of Ontario and Manitoba. Under this system, investigation of documents filed against the property and an understanding of relevant common law (or civil law in Québec) and statutory rules is required to determine the status of title. In the balance of the country, title is recorded under the "land titles" system under which the status of title is determined and guaranteed by the provincial or territorial recording authority.
Québec employs a system of title conveyancing which relies in large part upon notaries, who fulfill a special role in connection with the transfer of real property under the Civil Code of Québec. A notarial form of deed (i.e., a conveyance of land which is in a prescribed form and which is executed before and authenticated by a notary) is prepared by a notary who keeps the original document in his or her records and deposits a certified copy in the relevant land registry office.
Over the past decade, title insurance has become the norm for residential properties throughout Canada and has replaced lawyers' legal opinions as a means to protect both purchasers and mortgagees with respect to title deficiencies. While not as common, title insurance is also frequently obtained in conjunction with the acquisition and mortgaging of non-residential properties.
Security Interests in Real Property
Most real estate financings are arranged through institutional lenders such as banks, trust companies, pension funds, credit unions and insurance companies. Credit terms will vary between institutions and will be reflective of the nature of the transaction and risks involved. Generally, lenders will not provide financing in excess of 75% of the appraised value of a property. Because many foreign lenders in Canada are subsidiaries of international banks, they frequently participate by way of syndicated loans arranged by a Canadian lending institution.
Lending institutions typically take both primary and collateral security in real property and related assets; Primary security includes: a mortgage or charge; a debenture containing a fixed charge on real property or, in some cases where multiple lenders are involved, a trust deed securing mortgage bonds or debentures and including a specific charge over real property. Collateral security often includes: assignments of leases and rents; assignment of material contracts; general security agreements; and third party guarantees.
Upon default in payment under any such mortgage or instrument, a creditor may sue the debtor and, in most cases, subject to compliance with legal procedural requirements of the particular jurisdiction, may sell or foreclose upon the interests of the debtor and subsequent holders of security interests in real property. As a result of the ability to register any number of security interests against a particular property, statutory rules (which are usually based on the order of registration under the applicable registry or land titles systems) exist to determine priority among lenders.
In Ontario, generally speaking, brokerage licences are required from the Financial Services Commission of Ontario before any individual or corporation can carry on the business of dealing in mortgages, trading in mortgages, mortgage lending or administering mortgages. Failure to obtain such a licence may result in penalties not only to the entity participating in such activities but also potentially to officers and directors of the offending entity. Similar legislation relating to the governance of mortgage brokers is in place in a number of other provinces including British Columbia, Alberta and Québec.
Land Transfer Taxes
Most provinces and territories (Alberta being the exception) impose land transfer taxes upon the purchasers or long-term lessees of real property, payable at the time of acquisition. Such taxes may be levied at the provincial/territorial and/ or municipal levels, depending upon the province, territories and municipality, and are typically calculated as a percentage of the value of the consideration paid to acquire the property, including land, building and fixtures. In Ontario, for example, a graduated land transfer tax rate is imposed starting at 0.5% and increasing to 1.5%, or 2.0% for residential property. For properties located within the City of Toronto, an additional graduated land transfer tax is payable starting at 0.5% and increasing to 1.0%, or 2.0% for residential property.
There are certain exemptions which may be claimed to avoid, postpone or reduce land transfer tax in appropriate circumstances.
GST and HST
The Goods and Services Tax ("GST") is a federal value-added tax imposed at the rate of 5% on goods sold or rented and services provided in Canada. As a general rule, the sale or lease of real property is taxable unless there is a specific exempting provision in the legislation. For example, subject to specific qualifications, exemptions exist for: (a) the sale of used residential property (houses, condominiums, apartment buildings); (b) the sale of vacant land by an individual; (c) farmland sold to family members; and (d) residential rent for lease terms greater than one month. The provinces of Ontario, Québec, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador all apply a single tax which combines the provincial sales tax and the GST to create a single harmonized tax ("HST"). On July 1, 2010, British Columbia similarly combined its provincial sales taxes with the GST to create a single sales tax. However, following a referendum in 2011, British Columbia reverted to its previous system of separate provincial sales tax and GST, effective as of April 1, 2013. Accordingly and subject to certain transitional rules, only GST will be payable on the sale or lease of real property in British Columbia (subject to applicable exemptions). In Ontario, the combined HST rate is 13%. The HST generally applies to all purchases and leases of non-residential real property. Sales and leases of real property that were exempt under the GST rules continue to be exempt for the purposes of HST. Sales of new residential real estate in Ontario are subject to the HST, but rebates are available for some of the provincial sales tax portion of the HST.
LAND USE REGULATIONS
All land in Canada is subject to some form of regulation respecting its use and development. The scope of such regulation can vary from the simple to the complex and can involve regulation by the federal, provincial/territorial and municipal (local) levels of government, including special purpose bodies. The construction and use of buildings is likewise subject to public regulation in all parts of Canada. With minor exceptions, one or more public permits or licences must be obtained before constructing, occupying or making changes to the use of commercial and industrial buildings as well as residential properties. Public regulations of land use across Canada are generally put in place following consultation with stakeholders, including property owners, in an orderly and open fashion. The existence and details of the regulations (be they province-wide or area-specific) are publicly available and generally well known or readily accessible to all whose interests are touched by them, including land owners, project proponents, architects, contractors and the like.
Generally speaking, land use regulation across Canada has elements of flexibility and is subject to review and reconsideration to meet changing needs and objectives. Land use regulation is intended to produce an outcome that protects and balances private and public interests without officious or unfair interference in the use and enjoyment of land. Land use regulations are normally not retroactive. The regulatory frameworks of Canada and the provinces and territories provide appeal or review opportunities for persons who seek exceptions or changes to the regulations applying to their properties or influencing their property interests. The nature and extent of these rights of appeal and review vary from the simple (e.g., a request to a municipal building official to allow a variation in the use of building materials that is a satisfactory substitute for the literal requirements of a building code) to the complex (e.g., a request to change the land use provisions on a large area of agricultural land to permit its development as a new urban community). The latter may involve administrative, political and quasi-judicial tribunal decisions at several government levels, possibly extending over a period of several years. Guidance and advice from professionals such as land use planners, environmental and traffic engineers and/or market research consultants will often be necessary.
All but the most sparsely populated areas of Canada are governed by local municipal governments or planning boards which, in most cases, exercise through zoning and other controls the most influential powers over land use. These powers are exercised in accordance with senior government policy as well as master policy plans (often known as Official Plans) as determined and laid down by the municipal council. These regulations are unique to each municipality, based on local preference and enacted with public notice and citizen input. Zoning regulations typically implement the policies contained in the relevant master policy plan and may often be amended on a general or site-specific basis upon a successful request by a landowner or owner's agent. Appeal rights exist for applications that are refused by the relevant local board or council.
Subdivision of Land
The division of parcels of land or interests in land or buildings is generally controlled in relation to all lands under provincial and territorial jurisdictions. When land is divided to create separate building lots, to add land to an existing ownership, to create rights such as rights-of-way, easements, or mortgages over parts of land parcels or to divide buildings into separate condominium units, one or more government approvals are almost always required.
Development agreements between a landowner and a municipality are utilized to ensure that adequate infrastructure is available or will be made available to accommodate the proposed development without adversely affecting the surrounding area. A development agreement is a generic term that generally means an agreement that is required by a municipality as a pre-condition to development approval that ensures that the landowner fulfills the obligations that the municipality has imposed in granting the approval.
Despite the fact that some provinces do not provide the statutory authority for municipalities to enter into development agreements, the courts have upheld such agreements as necessary to control and direct development. Each province has its own statutory regime which expressly permits municipalities to enter into development agreements or does not expressly provide the legislative authority to enter into such agreements.
Buildings may be subject to prohibitions against modification or demolition as a result of their architectural or historical significance. Such controls may be absolute or temporary. Lands and buildings of cultural heritage interest are often identified and listed on individual inventories that exist at the municipal, regional, provincial and/or national level. The criteria by which cultural heritage properties are identified typically focus on materials, design, historical associations and/or contextual value.
Properties determined to be of significant heritage value or interest may be designated under provincial statute and thereby gain legal protection against future alterations or demolition. Designation is not essential for protection, but is often undertaken to enhance the listed property's prospect for long-term survival. Permission to alter or demolish a heritage designated property is often at the discretion of the local municipal council or planning board, which often takes direct advice from a local heritage advisory committee. In most jurisdictions, there are limited rights of appeal to a provincially-appointed administrative tribunal should an application be refused.
Significant Natural Areas, Flood Plains
As a general rule, government regulations do not sterilize land by prohibiting all land uses or prohibiting the construction of all buildings. The exceptions to this general rule occur when health and safety risks are significant – for example, in the case of flood plains and erosion prone lands, or when the lands are in an area of scientific or natural interest. In the latter circumstances, regulatory control is often exercised by special purpose bodies such as watershed commissions or conservation authorities established by statute. While development within these highly protected areas may still be possible, additional approvals will be required from the commissions and/or authorities tasked with protecting the area.
Municipal Infrastructure and Development Charges
Municipal governments in all provinces plan for and provide various forms of infrastructure for their residents, such as water and sewers, roads and streets, solid waste collection and disposal, and parks and recreation. Municipal governments in urban contexts also often provide police and fire protection, public transit, tourism bureaus, libraries and economic development services. The primary means by which these services are paid for is taxation on land. However, the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Nova Scotia, as well as the Yukon and Northwest Territories, also impose a formalized system of levies applicable to the development of land.
Development charges are one-time payments, usually collected prior to the issuance of building permits, that local and regional governments may collect from land developers to offset costs related to increased services that are incurred as a direct result of new development. Developers pay development charges for these increases rather than the costs being borne by the existing taxpayers who are not creating the demand for the new infrastructure or services. The demand created by new development also does not always relate to physical works or services that are provided adjacent to the lands being developed. For example, new development may be required to pay a development charge related to increasing the size of arterial roads or water infrastructure elsewhere in the municipality in anticipation of future development.
Local school boards may also impose a similar development charge of their own, termed an "educational development charge" or "EDC." EDCs may be imposed if a school board will need to acquire a new school site(s) to accommodate students resulting from new growth, although the levy may apply to both residential and non-residential development.
The imposition of a new development charge is typically preceded by a public process, including notice and input from the affected community. There is often an ability to challenge the imposition of a new development charge, either directly with the municipal government or on appeal to the courts or an administrative tribunal. For example, in Ontario, the Ontario Municipal Board hears appeals from enacted development charge by-laws.
The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.