Canada: Pecore Applied

Last Updated: January 28 2015
Article by Michael A. Goldberg

In the recent case of Midtdal v Pohl, 2014 ABQB 646, the issue was whether or not a certain transfer gave rise to a resulting trust—nothing less than the family farm was at stake.

Gordon and Vivian were married in May 1974, two years after the death of Vivian's first husband. Vivian had five children by her first marriage, the oldest being Melva (the Defendant). At the time of his marriage to Vivian, Gordon owned six quarter sections of land he had purchased from his father. He eventually transferred title to the lands to himself and Vivian as joint tenants. Gordon and Vivian later built a house on one of these sections (the "Home Quarter"). On June 4, 2004, Gordon and Vivian executed transfers of land adding Melva as a joint tenant to the title to the Home Quarter.

The issue was whether, as Gordon maintained, a resulting trust arose from Gordon and Vivian's transfer of a joint interest in the Home Quarter to Melva such that the beneficial ownership of the Home Quarter remained with Gordon and Vivian, or, as Melva maintained, whether the transfer of a joint interest was an outright gift to Melva.

The evidence indicated that Gordon and Vivian had a close relationship with Melva and her husband Dennis. Of the children, only Melva and Dennis were actively engaged in farming.

On June 4, 2007, Gordon and Vivian executed transfers of land creating a joint interest for Melva with them in the Home Quarter. After the transfer, Gordon continued to reside on the land, farm it, pay property taxes and home-related expenses, and receive oil lease revenues. He never reported a disposition of the Home Quarter on his tax return. Counsel for Gordon suggested that the transfer was simply part of an "estate planning" decision. It was a choice made by Vivian and Gordon to avoid using their wills in relation to the disposition of their land but rather the vehicle of survivorship under a joint tenancy. It was argued that this estate planning decision was not sufficient to discharge the presumption of a resulting trust.

Counsel for Melva submitted that Gordon and Vivian's intentions had to be considered as of the time of the transfer of the joint interest in June 2004 to Melva. At that time, the Supreme Court of Canada's decision in Pecore v. Pecore, 2007 SCC 17, had not yet been decided and, in cases such as this, the law provided that the presumption of advancement applied unless it could be established that beneficial interest remained with the transferor. This was the reason the lawyer retained in relation to the transfer, appeared to have discussed the prospect of a letter of agreement preserving the beneficial title in Gordon and Vivian, as evidenced by his handwritten note. However, if advice regarding retaining beneficial title had ever been given orraised, there was no evidence that Gordon and Vivian ever acted on it.

It being determined that the transfer of title to the Home Quarter section was gratuitous, the Court noted that Melva, as an independent adult child, had the onus of proving that the intention of Gordon and Vivian was to gift a joint interest in the Home Quarter to her. Per Pecore, the close relationship between Gordon and Vivian and Melva and Denis could be considered, but it was just one factor among others.

Another critical aspect of Pecore noted by the Court was Rothstein J's discussion of a situation where the transferor placed assets into a joint account with the transferee with the intention of retaining exclusive control of the account until his or her death, at which time the transferee would take the balance through survivorship. He noted that one of the difficulties in these circumstances is that the beneficial interest of the transferee appears to arise only on the death of the transferor, leading some judges to conclude that the gift of survivorship is testamentary in nature and must fail as a result of not being in proper testamentary form. He went on to find, at para 48, that:

. . . the rights of survivorship, both legal and equitable, vest when the joint account is opened and the gift of those rights is therefore inter vivos in nature. This has also been the conclusion of the weight of judicial opinion in recent times.

Considering all the evidence, the Court concluded that the situation in this case was analogous to that in Pecore. Melva was judged to have rebutted the presumption of a resulting trust. Gordon and Vivian's transfer of a joint interest in the Home Quarter to Melva constituted an irrevocable inter vivos gift and the right of survivorship vested when the gift was made.

It remains to note that, whenever a gratuitous transfer of joint ownership is on the table, the intentions of the transferor(s) should be carefully documented. There is every chance that this will serve to avoid estate litigation.

Originally published by The Estate Planner, Number 240, January 2015

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Michael A. Goldberg
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions