Canada: The Top 5 Things An Activist Should Know About Canada

Shareholder activism has become mainstream in Canada, as it has in the United States.  Though U.S. funds have not been as active in the Canadian market, in the last two years there have nonetheless been high profile proxy contests initiated by Pershing Square (in obtaining board and management change at CP), by Mason Capital (in attempting to block a share reorganization by TELUS Corporation) and by Jana Partners (in attempting to implement corporate change at Agrium).  Most recently, Icahn Enterprises' acquisition of a 6% interest in Talisman Energy resulted in two of its nominees being added to the board without the need for a proxy contest.

Canadian corporate and securities laws are favourable to activists.  The following discussion highlights five key features of Canadian laws important to an activist in taking a position in a publicly-traded Canadian issuer:

1. Early Warning Reporting

Acquiring 10% or more of the voting or equity securities of a Canadian issuer triggers a requirement to immediately file a press release with an early warning report to follow.  Further share purchases of 2% or more will again trigger the disclosure and reporting requirement.  Whenever a press release is issued, a one-day trading moratorium is imposed on the investor.  

There is also an alternative, monthly reporting system, which may be available to an activist fund which does not intend to make a takeover bid or seek effective control.  A report is required to be filed only if the threshold is exceeded as at a month end, and there is no trading moratorium. 

Though the Canadian reporting threshold is higher than the U.S. 5% threshold, if the Canadian issuer is also listed on a U.S. exchange, 13D reporting will be triggered at the lower U.S. threshold.

2. Wolf Packs

In Canada institutional investors have been more willing to support activists at the ballot box than join forces at the outset.   One overriding concern to an institutional investor is that it not be regarded as acting jointly or in concert with the activist.  As a joint actor, its shareholdings will be combined with those of the activist in calculating the threshold for early warning reporting (and it will also be subject to the trading moratorium) and it will be subject to other trading restrictions if material undisclosed information received by the activist from the issuer is passed on.  As well, the combined acquisition of 20% or more of the voting or equity securities of the issuer by the activist and joint actors can trigger a formal takeover bid requirement. 

It is a question of fact whether shareholders are acting jointly or in concert. A recent court decision found cooperation among dissidents, including a group discussion with a proxy solicitation firm and the sharing of a draft dissident proxy circular, to be sufficient factors to make them joint actors. Note that an agreement among shareholders as to how to vote their shares will give rise to a presumption that they are joint actors.  Careful attention must therefore be paid as to whether a joint actor relationship is being created.

3. Nominating Directors

Advance notice by-laws were adopted at a rapid rate starting in 2012, though there are still a significant number of issuers without them.  Individual elections for directors rather than slate voting are now required by the Toronto Stock Exchange and staggered or classified boards are prohibited.  

Whether it is appropriate for an activist to separately compensate its board nominees is the subject of debate.  Such an arrangement was proposed by Jana Partners in its proxy contest with Agrium, with the proposed compensation to be calculated by reference to the profit earned by Jana from its investment over three years.  The devil will be in the details in structuring these arrangements to appropriately balance objectives and concerns.

4. Requisitioning Shareholder Meetings

Rather than wait for the next AGM to nominate directors, a 5% registered shareholder can requisition a shareholder meeting at any time.  About one-half of all proxy contests in Canada are initiated in this manner.  Once a requisition has been made, the directors have 21 days to determine a date for the meeting and if they fail to do so, the shareholder may convene the meeting.  However, the directors are not required to convene a  meeting if they have already taken certain action to convene another meeting, such as the AGM.  There are numerous court decisions which have addressed whether a board's decision to defer to a later scheduled meeting is reasonable in the circumstances and whether the requisitioning shareholder would be materially prejudiced by the delay.  It is critical for the activist to show immediacy in its actions when requisitioning a meeting.

5. Proxy Solicitation

Exemptions are available from the requirement to prepare a dissident proxy circular where proxies are being solicited from 15 or less shareholders or the solicitation is being conducted generally through the media, advertisements or speeches.  But to launch a full-blown proxy contest with direct contact with institutional and retail investors, a dissident proxy circular will be required.  The circular must be prepared following prescribed guidelines, though no regulatory review is required.

In the Jana Partners/Agrium proxy contest, Agrium offered soliciting brokers a fee for proxies collected in favour of management's slate, payable only upon election of management's slate.  This tactic attracted significant criticism both with respect to the use of corporate funds and the impact it had on brokers exercising their fiduciary duties.  Though not challenged in court, Canadian courts have broad equitable jurisdiction under corporate law statutes to remedy action by an issuer that is oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to a shareholder.

This article appears in the Thursday, December 12th post of the Official Activist Investing Blog TM

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on Mondaq.com.

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Authors
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Gowling WLG
 
In association with
Related Topics
 
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Gowling WLG
Related Articles
 
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Tools
Print
Font Size:
Translation
Channels
Mondaq on Twitter
 
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
 
Email Address
Company Name
Password
Confirm Password
Position
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Accounting
 Anti-trust
 Commercial
 Compliance
 Consumer
 Criminal
 Employment
 Energy
 Environment
 Family
 Finance
 Government
 Healthcare
 Immigration
 Insolvency
 Insurance
 International
 IP
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Litigation
 Media & IT
 Privacy
 Real Estate
 Strategy
 Tax
 Technology
 Transport
 Wealth Mgt
Regions
Africa
Asia
Asia Pacific
Australasia
Canada
Caribbean
Europe
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
U.K.
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions

Mondaq.com (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of www.mondaq.com

To Use Mondaq.com you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.

Disclaimer

The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.

General

Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions