Canada: Legal Expenses To Be Paid By The Estate In Committeeship Applications

In Vieira (Re), 2013 BCCA 420, [Vieira], the BC Court of Appeal commented on the circumstances in which an order for special costs would be made against the estate of an individual when an interested party makes an application for 'committee of the person' of that individual.  This case shows that, generally speaking, a successful applicant will be entitled to special costs paid out of the patient's estate.  Exceptions to this rule may arise, however, where there are concerns over the applicant's motive, the applicant is guilty of poor conduct during the litigation, the estate is unable to support the order, or the court provides other clearly articulated reasons for deviating from the usual practice.

By way of background, in BC a legally capable individual can execute a representation agreement that gives another person the authority to make health care decisions on his or her behalf in the event that the individual becomes incapable of making those decisions.  However, once a person becomes mentally incapable, only the court can appoint a guardian to make that person's healthcare decisions.  A person so appointed is called a "committee of the person".  Usually, this person will be a family member or friend of the incapacitated patient; however, if there is no one available or family conflict necessitates giving the authority to an objective third party, the court can appoint the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee of British Columbia ("PGT") to act as the patient's committee.

Where there is a representation agreement in place, it automatically terminates when a court makes an order of committeeship.  As a result, if an interested third party feels that a patient's representative is not acting in the patient's best interests, the third party can make a committeeship application with the goal of removing authority from the representative and taking over as the patient's committee.  

This is precisely what happened in Vieira.  Mr. Vieira's daughter was appointed as his representative by a representation agreement.  Mr. Vieira's wife became concerned that his daughter was not using her authority in the best interests of Mr. Vieira and brought an application under the Representation Agreement Act , RSBC 1996, c 405, and the Patients Property Act, RSBC 1996, c 349, to be appointed committee to the person of Mr. Vieira.  The evidence put before the chambers judge by both sides was severely lacking, leaving him unable to make a final determination.  As a result, the judge made an interim (temporary) order appointing the Office of the Public Guardian and Trustee of British Columbia as committee to Mr. Vieira, pending a more complete proceeding in which the issue could be properly decided on its merits. 

The chambers judge went on to order that each of the parties would be responsible for his or her own legal costs.  While the court has discretion to make such an order, the usual practice of the BC Supreme Court in committeeship applications is to award special costs to the successful applicant.  These costs are to be paid out of the patient's estate, and are intended to entirely cover the applicant's reasonable legal fees.  An award of special costs is greater than a normal costs award, which only compensates a successful party for a portion of their fees.    

Mr. Vieira's wife appealed the chambers judge's costs order on the grounds that the chambers judge exercised his discretion on an improper basis.  The Court of Appeal noted that while the Patients Property Act, section 27, gives the court very broad discretion to make costs awards, that discretion is not completely unbounded.  It may be appropriate for the court to deviate from its usual practice where there are concerns about the applicant's motives or conduct during the course of the application, or the ability of the estate to bear an order for costs.  These factors are not exhaustive, so other situations may arise in which it is appropriate for the court to use its discretion to deny special costs to the applicant.

In Vieira, the application for committeeship was successful and brought in good faith without any expectation or possibility of personal benefit to the applicant.  The appointment was found to be in the best interests of the patient, Mr. Vieira.  On these grounds, and because the chambers judge had not properly articulated his reasons for departing from the usual practice, the Court of Appeal overturned the lower court's ruling that the parties should each bear their own costs.  The Court of Appeal also noted that the chambers judge could have made an order for costs in the cause or an order that the issue of costs be decided by the court making the final decision in the committeeship matter.  While the Court of Appeal might have been inclined to make an order along those lines, both parties indicated that no further proceedings were likely.  The Court preferred to make a final determination on the issue of costs, ordering that the appellant have special costs, paid from the patient's estate, in both the appeal and the earlier chambers application.


The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Topics
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions