Canada: Autorité Des Marchés Financiers v. Fournier: Objection Dismissed!

On June 22, 2012, the Quebec Court of Appeal (QCA) issued a groundbreaking judgment in Autorité des marchés financiers v. Fournier. Specifically, the QCA held that in the context of an examination conducted by an investigator of the AMF pursuant to an investigation under section 239 of the Quebec Securities Act (QSA), the attorney representing the investigated party cannot raise objections. The Fournier ruling raises important issues with respect to AMF investigators now being empowered with dual and conflicting roles of prosecutor and judge.

Background Facts

On January 26, 2006, the AMF launched an investigation pursuant to section 239 of the QSA in relation to the activities of Martin Tremblay and his brokerage firm Dominion Investments.

On January 14, 2008, Mr. Gilbert Fournier received a redacted subpoena duces tecum from an AMF investigator, compelling him to testify at a certain date and time, and requiring him to bring certain documents.

On February 14, 2008, the Respondent appeared for the examination, accompanied by his attorney. At the outset of the examination, the AMF investigator informed the Respondent that the investigation pertained to Martin Tremblay and Dominion Investments, and the attorney for the Respondent was provided with a redacted copy of the decision triggering the Investigation.

When the investigator asked his first question, i.e. whether the Respondent held a brokerage account, the Respondent's attorney objected on grounds of relevancy. The investigator replied that the attorney had no right to formulate an objection. The Respondent's attorney disagreed and suggested that the objection be submitted to a Superior Court judge for adjudication. The suggestion was refused by the investigator, who shortly thereafter terminated the examination. On March 12, 2008, the Respondent received a penal complaint from the AMF pursuant to section 195(4) of the QSA for refusal to testify. The Respondent successfully challenged the complaint before the Court of Québec and the Superior Court.

The AMF appealed before the QCA.

Decision of the QCA

The QCA granted the appeal and declared the Respondent guilty of refusing to answer questions asked in the context of an investigation conducted by the AMF.

Justice Dufresne acknowledged the right of a person examined by an investigator to be assisted by an attorney, which right is explicitly set forth at section 246 of the QSA. However, the Court ruled that the attorney may not raise objections in the context of the examination. The Court based its ruling on section 241 QSA, which states that: "No person called upon to testify in the course of an investigation or being examined under oath may refuse to answer or to produce any document on the ground that he might thereby be incriminated or exposed to a penalty or civil proceedings, subject to the Canada Evidence Act" [emphasis added].

The Court indicated that the attorney may counsel his client not to answer a question, but in such a case the client runs the risk of being found guilty for refusal to testify pursuant to section 195(4) of the QSA.

The QCA further stated that if an objection is raised by the attorney, it is up to the investigator to decide whether it is well-founded, and the investigator has no duty to motivate his decision. The QCA indicated that the Superior Court may intervene only where the investigator exceeded his powers or acted in violation of the principles of natural justice in disposing of the objection.

We believe that this QCA ruling is surprising in that it substantially softens the fundamental right to be assisted by an attorney (specifically provided for by section 246 of the QSA) and confers to investigators of the AMF extraordinary powers to ask questions and, at the same time, rule upon the legality of same.

Also to be noted is the QCA's decision to condemn the Respondent for refusing to answer questions, even where the refusals were solely based upon the advice of counsel.

Finally, section 11 of the Act respecting public inquiry commissions, to which the QSA refers, reads as follows: "Any person refusing to be sworn when duly required, or omitting or refusing, without just cause, sufficiently to answer any question that may be lawfully put to him, or to render any testimony in virtue of this Act, is in contempt of court and shall be punished accordingly." It is our opinion that the determination of whether the conditions in bold are met should be made by an independent and impartial judge or tribunal, as provided by section 23 of the Quebec Charter.


Unless the Fournier case is overturned by the Supreme Court of Canada, the QCA has essentially ruled that an attorney representing a person examined pursuant to an investigation held by the AMF has no right to object to the investigator's questions.

This decision will have an important impact on brokerage firms and their registered representatives who are the primary persons subject to investigations and examinations conducted by the AMF pursuant to section 239 of the QSA. A person examined by the AMF must be informed of the fact that it will have to potentially answer ALL of the questions posed by the AMF investigator, be prepared accordingly and that refusal to do so may lead to a penal complaint for refusal to testify pursuant to section 195(4) of the QSA.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
In association with
Related Topics
Similar Articles
Relevancy Powered by MondaqAI
Related Articles
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Registration (you must scroll down to set your data preferences)

Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including your content preferences, for three primary purposes (full details of Mondaq’s use of your personal data can be found in our Privacy and Cookies Notice):

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting to show content ("Content") relevant to your interests.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, news alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our content providers ("Contributors") who contribute Content for free for your use.

Mondaq hopes that our registered users will support us in maintaining our free to view business model by consenting to our use of your personal data as described below.

Mondaq has a "free to view" business model. Our services are paid for by Contributors in exchange for Mondaq providing them with access to information about who accesses their content. Once personal data is transferred to our Contributors they become a data controller of this personal data. They use it to measure the response that their articles are receiving, as a form of market research. They may also use it to provide Mondaq users with information about their products and services.

Details of each Contributor to which your personal data will be transferred is clearly stated within the Content that you access. For full details of how this Contributor will use your personal data, you should review the Contributor’s own Privacy Notice.

Please indicate your preference below:

Yes, I am happy to support Mondaq in maintaining its free to view business model by agreeing to allow Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors whose Content I access
No, I do not want Mondaq to share my personal data with Contributors

Also please let us know whether you are happy to receive communications promoting products and services offered by Mondaq:

Yes, I am happy to received promotional communications from Mondaq
No, please do not send me promotional communications from Mondaq
Terms & Conditions (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd (Mondaq). Mondaq grants you a non-exclusive, revocable licence to access the Website and associated services, such as the Mondaq News Alerts (Services), subject to and in consideration of your compliance with the following terms and conditions of use (Terms). Your use of the Website and/or Services constitutes your agreement to the Terms. Mondaq may terminate your use of the Website and Services if you are in breach of these Terms or if Mondaq decides to terminate the licence granted hereunder for any reason whatsoever.

Use of

To Use you must be: eighteen (18) years old or over; legally capable of entering into binding contracts; and not in any way prohibited by the applicable law to enter into these Terms in the jurisdiction which you are currently located.

You may use the Website as an unregistered user, however, you are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the Content or to receive the Services.

You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these Terms or with the prior written consent of Mondaq. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information from the Content. Nor shall you extract information about users or Contributors in order to offer them any services or products.

In your use of the Website and/or Services you shall: comply with all applicable laws, regulations, directives and legislations which apply to your Use of the Website and/or Services in whatever country you are physically located including without limitation any and all consumer law, export control laws and regulations; provide to us true, correct and accurate information and promptly inform us in the event that any information that you have provided to us changes or becomes inaccurate; notify Mondaq immediately of any circumstances where you have reason to believe that any Intellectual Property Rights or any other rights of any third party may have been infringed; co-operate with reasonable security or other checks or requests for information made by Mondaq from time to time; and at all times be fully liable for the breach of any of these Terms by a third party using your login details to access the Website and/or Services

however, you shall not: do anything likely to impair, interfere with or damage or cause harm or distress to any persons, or the network; do anything that will infringe any Intellectual Property Rights or other rights of Mondaq or any third party; or use the Website, Services and/or Content otherwise than in accordance with these Terms; use any trade marks or service marks of Mondaq or the Contributors, or do anything which may be seen to take unfair advantage of the reputation and goodwill of Mondaq or the Contributors, or the Website, Services and/or Content.

Mondaq reserves the right, in its sole discretion, to take any action that it deems necessary and appropriate in the event it considers that there is a breach or threatened breach of the Terms.

Mondaq’s Rights and Obligations

Unless otherwise expressly set out to the contrary, nothing in these Terms shall serve to transfer from Mondaq to you, any Intellectual Property Rights owned by and/or licensed to Mondaq and all rights, title and interest in and to such Intellectual Property Rights will remain exclusively with Mondaq and/or its licensors.

Mondaq shall use its reasonable endeavours to make the Website and Services available to you at all times, but we cannot guarantee an uninterrupted and fault free service.

Mondaq reserves the right to make changes to the services and/or the Website or part thereof, from time to time, and we may add, remove, modify and/or vary any elements of features and functionalities of the Website or the services.

Mondaq also reserves the right from time to time to monitor your Use of the Website and/or services.


The Content is general information only. It is not intended to constitute legal advice or seek to be the complete and comprehensive statement of the law, nor is it intended to address your specific requirements or provide advice on which reliance should be placed. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the Content for any purpose. All Content provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq and/or its Contributors and other suppliers hereby exclude and disclaim all representations, warranties or guarantees with regard to the Content, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. To the maximum extent permitted by law, Mondaq expressly excludes all representations, warranties, obligations, and liabilities arising out of or in connection with all Content. In no event shall Mondaq and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use of the Content or performance of Mondaq’s Services.


Mondaq may alter or amend these Terms by amending them on the Website. By continuing to Use the Services and/or the Website after such amendment, you will be deemed to have accepted any amendment to these Terms.

These Terms shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of England and Wales and you irrevocably submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the courts of England and Wales to settle any dispute which may arise out of or in connection with these Terms. If you live outside the United Kingdom, English law shall apply only to the extent that English law shall not deprive you of any legal protection accorded in accordance with the law of the place where you are habitually resident ("Local Law"). In the event English law deprives you of any legal protection which is accorded to you under Local Law, then these terms shall be governed by Local Law and any dispute or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms shall be subject to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the courts where you are habitually resident.

You may print and keep a copy of these Terms, which form the entire agreement between you and Mondaq and supersede any other communications or advertising in respect of the Service and/or the Website.

No delay in exercising or non-exercise by you and/or Mondaq of any of its rights under or in connection with these Terms shall operate as a waiver or release of each of your or Mondaq’s right. Rather, any such waiver or release must be specifically granted in writing signed by the party granting it.

If any part of these Terms is held unenforceable, that part shall be enforced to the maximum extent permissible so as to give effect to the intent of the parties, and the Terms shall continue in full force and effect.

Mondaq shall not incur any liability to you on account of any loss or damage resulting from any delay or failure to perform all or any part of these Terms if such delay or failure is caused, in whole or in part, by events, occurrences, or causes beyond the control of Mondaq. Such events, occurrences or causes will include, without limitation, acts of God, strikes, lockouts, server and network failure, riots, acts of war, earthquakes, fire and explosions.

By clicking Register you state you have read and agree to our Terms and Conditions