Canada: Working Notice: How To Ensure It Is Effective

Last Updated: May 8 2012
Article by Steve M. Winder

Most Read Contributor in Canada, September 2016

Edited by Jennifer M. Fantini and Naomi E. Calla

Recently, two British Columbia court cases considered the effect of an employee refusing to work after a period of working notice was provided by the employer.

In Allan v. Ainsworth Lumber Co. Ltd.,1 the employer provided notice of termination to the employee in accordance with an employment contract that provided that the employee would receive 15 months' salary and benefits or "pay in lieu". The company gave the employee a letter stating he would be terminated 15 months later, but that he was no longer required to report to work and was to focus his time and energy instead on securing new employment. He was asked to leave the building that day and to turn in any company property. He no longer had access to his company email, telephone or voicemail.

The employee brought a legal action and claimed that the 15 months' pay in lieu of notice was not really notice, but a debt due under his employment agreement. The employer denied that it had terminated his employment and argued instead that it gave the employee 15 months' working notice while also assigning him to new duties devoted exclusively to searching for new employment.

In considering these issues, the Court found that the employer's letter did, in fact, end the employee's employment. It noted that termination must be clear and unequivocal, and that recognition would not be given to an employer who intentionally creates ambiguity through its own words and conduct and for its own advantage. The Court also rejected the employer's argument that the employee had been constructively dismissed and held that the purported giving of working notice to the employee was simply a guise for actual immediate termination. Therefore, the employee was awarded 15 months' notice in accordance with his employment contract and damages for a lost bonus which had formed a significant part of his compensation package.

In another decision, Giza v. Sechelt School Bus Service Ltd.,2 a part-time bus driver was terminated without cause and provided with five weeks' notice, based on his employer's belief that the statutory notice period in the Employment Standards Act was sufficient. The employee did not return to work after receiving this notice. At trial, the Court held that although inadequate notice had been given, the plaintiff had quit, and therefore was not entitled to damages for wrongful dismissal. However, the Court of Appeal overturned the trial judge's finding that the employee's failure to work through the notice period disentitled him to any damages. The Court agreed that the employee's failure to work during a notice period repudiated the employment relationship and brought it to an end, but held that the employee was still entitled to receive reasonable notice because that right arose before the repudiation. The Court of Appeal agreed that the notice provided was not sufficient and calculated reasonable notice to be six months, but deducted one month for the time the employee could have worked with pay for the employer.

Based on these cases, employers should take into account several practical considerations when deciding whether or not to provide an employee with a lengthy working notice period rather than pay in lieu:

  1. Carefully review and consider the actual terms of any applicable employment agreement concerning termination, and ensure that there is an option to provide working notice of termination as opposed to a lump sum payment in lieu. Ensure that the employee is being provided with the specific entitlements outlined in any employment agreement.
  2. If the employee is provided with a lengthy working notice period, ensure that all of the same terms and conditions of employment continue, and be cautious not to significantly change any of the employee's duties or obligations during the notice period (including working from home or not working at all) without clear agreement from the employee.
  3. Consider carefully the length of the period of notice to be given, where none is specified in the employment agreement. Where practicable, provide a period of notice that is in the range of common law notice. Alternatively, consider partial working notice followed by pay in lieu for the remainder of the employee's entitlement. Given the increasing complexities of damages claimed in wrongful dismissal actions, including those relating to benefit continuation, working notice periods are often an effective way of discharging an employer's termination obligations. However, as these recent cases demonstrate, working notice is not necessarily simple in practice, and often an employer's best intentions can still result in liability. For this reason, it is important to carefully consider all of the relevant circumstances and factors before implementing a period of working notice.


1 2011 BCSC 1707.

2 2012 BCCA 18.

About BLG

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

To print this article, all you need is to be registered on

Click to Login as an existing user or Register so you can print this article.

In association with
Related Video
Up-coming Events Search
Font Size:
Mondaq on Twitter
Register for Access and our Free Biweekly Alert for
This service is completely free. Access 250,000 archived articles from 100+ countries and get a personalised email twice a week covering developments (and yes, our lawyers like to think you’ve read our Disclaimer).
Email Address
Company Name
Confirm Password
Mondaq Topics -- Select your Interests
 Law Performance
 Law Practice
 Media & IT
 Real Estate
 Wealth Mgt
Asia Pacific
European Union
Latin America
Middle East
United States
Worldwide Updates
Check to state you have read and
agree to our Terms and Conditions

Terms & Conditions and Privacy Statement (the Website) is owned and managed by Mondaq Ltd and as a user you are granted a non-exclusive, revocable license to access the Website under its terms and conditions of use. Your use of the Website constitutes your agreement to the following terms and conditions of use. Mondaq Ltd may terminate your use of the Website if you are in breach of these terms and conditions or if Mondaq Ltd decides to terminate your license of use for whatever reason.

Use of

You may use the Website but are required to register as a user if you wish to read the full text of the content and articles available (the Content). You may not modify, publish, transmit, transfer or sell, reproduce, create derivative works from, distribute, perform, link, display, or in any way exploit any of the Content, in whole or in part, except as expressly permitted in these terms & conditions or with the prior written consent of Mondaq Ltd. You may not use electronic or other means to extract details or information about’s content, users or contributors in order to offer them any services or products which compete directly or indirectly with Mondaq Ltd’s services and products.


Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers make no representations about the suitability of the information contained in the documents and related graphics published on this server for any purpose. All such documents and related graphics are provided "as is" without warranty of any kind. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers hereby disclaim all warranties and conditions with regard to this information, including all implied warranties and conditions of merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose, title and non-infringement. In no event shall Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers be liable for any special, indirect or consequential damages or any damages whatsoever resulting from loss of use, data or profits, whether in an action of contract, negligence or other tortious action, arising out of or in connection with the use or performance of information available from this server.

The documents and related graphics published on this server could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically added to the information herein. Mondaq Ltd and/or its respective suppliers may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described herein at any time.


Mondaq Ltd requires you to register and provide information that personally identifies you, including what sort of information you are interested in, for three primary purposes:

  • To allow you to personalize the Mondaq websites you are visiting.
  • To enable features such as password reminder, newsletter alerts, email a colleague, and linking from Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to your website.
  • To produce demographic feedback for our information providers who provide information free for your use.

Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) do not sell or provide your details to third parties other than information providers. The reason we provide our information providers with this information is so that they can measure the response their articles are receiving and provide you with information about their products and services.

If you do not want us to provide your name and email address you may opt out by clicking here .

If you do not wish to receive any future announcements of products and services offered by Mondaq by clicking here .

Information Collection and Use

We require site users to register with Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) to view the free information on the site. We also collect information from our users at several different points on the websites: this is so that we can customise the sites according to individual usage, provide 'session-aware' functionality, and ensure that content is acquired and developed appropriately. This gives us an overall picture of our user profiles, which in turn shows to our Editorial Contributors the type of person they are reaching by posting articles on Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) – meaning more free content for registered users.

We are only able to provide the material on the Mondaq (and its affiliate sites) site free to site visitors because we can pass on information about the pages that users are viewing and the personal information users provide to us (e.g. email addresses) to reputable contributing firms such as law firms who author those pages. We do not sell or rent information to anyone else other than the authors of those pages, who may change from time to time. Should you wish us not to disclose your details to any of these parties, please tick the box above or tick the box marked "Opt out of Registration Information Disclosure" on the Your Profile page. We and our author organisations may only contact you via email or other means if you allow us to do so. Users can opt out of contact when they register on the site, or send an email to with “no disclosure” in the subject heading

Mondaq News Alerts

In order to receive Mondaq News Alerts, users have to complete a separate registration form. This is a personalised service where users choose regions and topics of interest and we send it only to those users who have requested it. Users can stop receiving these Alerts by going to the Mondaq News Alerts page and deselecting all interest areas. In the same way users can amend their personal preferences to add or remove subject areas.


A cookie is a small text file written to a user’s hard drive that contains an identifying user number. The cookies do not contain any personal information about users. We use the cookie so users do not have to log in every time they use the service and the cookie will automatically expire if you do not visit the Mondaq website (or its affiliate sites) for 12 months. We also use the cookie to personalise a user's experience of the site (for example to show information specific to a user's region). As the Mondaq sites are fully personalised and cookies are essential to its core technology the site will function unpredictably with browsers that do not support cookies - or where cookies are disabled (in these circumstances we advise you to attempt to locate the information you require elsewhere on the web). However if you are concerned about the presence of a Mondaq cookie on your machine you can also choose to expire the cookie immediately (remove it) by selecting the 'Log Off' menu option as the last thing you do when you use the site.

Some of our business partners may use cookies on our site (for example, advertisers). However, we have no access to or control over these cookies and we are not aware of any at present that do so.

Log Files

We use IP addresses to analyse trends, administer the site, track movement, and gather broad demographic information for aggregate use. IP addresses are not linked to personally identifiable information.


This web site contains links to other sites. Please be aware that Mondaq (or its affiliate sites) are not responsible for the privacy practices of such other sites. We encourage our users to be aware when they leave our site and to read the privacy statements of these third party sites. This privacy statement applies solely to information collected by this Web site.

Surveys & Contests

From time-to-time our site requests information from users via surveys or contests. Participation in these surveys or contests is completely voluntary and the user therefore has a choice whether or not to disclose any information requested. Information requested may include contact information (such as name and delivery address), and demographic information (such as postcode, age level). Contact information will be used to notify the winners and award prizes. Survey information will be used for purposes of monitoring or improving the functionality of the site.


If a user elects to use our referral service for informing a friend about our site, we ask them for the friend’s name and email address. Mondaq stores this information and may contact the friend to invite them to register with Mondaq, but they will not be contacted more than once. The friend may contact Mondaq to request the removal of this information from our database.


This website takes every reasonable precaution to protect our users’ information. When users submit sensitive information via the website, your information is protected using firewalls and other security technology. If you have any questions about the security at our website, you can send an email to

Correcting/Updating Personal Information

If a user’s personally identifiable information changes (such as postcode), or if a user no longer desires our service, we will endeavour to provide a way to correct, update or remove that user’s personal data provided to us. This can usually be done at the “Your Profile” page or by sending an email to

Notification of Changes

If we decide to change our Terms & Conditions or Privacy Policy, we will post those changes on our site so our users are always aware of what information we collect, how we use it, and under what circumstances, if any, we disclose it. If at any point we decide to use personally identifiable information in a manner different from that stated at the time it was collected, we will notify users by way of an email. Users will have a choice as to whether or not we use their information in this different manner. We will use information in accordance with the privacy policy under which the information was collected.

How to contact Mondaq

You can contact us with comments or queries at

If for some reason you believe Mondaq Ltd. has not adhered to these principles, please notify us by e-mail at and we will use commercially reasonable efforts to determine and correct the problem promptly.