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By María De Lourdes Meneses
The protection of Trade Secrets has taken place in the Andean Region since the nineties, with the adoption of economic liberation policies. The protection of Trade Secrets has been mainly regulated by the regulations of the Andean Community and by the internal regulations regarding unfair competition.
By Carlos Omaña
Venezuela started including collective action clauses (CACs) in its international bonds issued under New York law in 2003. Currently, Venezuelan international bonds that include CACs represent an aggregate principal amount of approximately U.S.$ 4.17 billion out of a total principal of foreign external indebtedness of approximately U.S.$ 24 billion (excluding foreign external indebtedness of Venezuelan quasi-sovereigns such as Petróleos de Venezuela, S.A.).
By Carlos Omaña
This article is intended to provide the international lawyer with an outline of the Venezuelan legal requirements for international loans granted to the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (the "Republic") and issues of debt securities by the Republic. The focus is on international and not domestic debt transactions.