Brazil: Comissão Especial Da Câmara Dos Deputados Aprova A Reforma Da Previdência.

Na última quinta-feira (04/07), a Comissão Especial da Câmara dos Deputados responsável por analisar a Proposta de Emenda à Constituição Federal nº 06/2019 (PEC), que trata da Reforma da Previdência, aprovou, por 36 votos a 13, o parecer do relator, deputado Samuel Moreira (PSDB-SP), que recomenda a aprovação da Reforma, mas altera diversos pontos da proposta enviada pelo governo do presidente Jair Bolsonaro, na forma do substitutivo que apresentou. Durante a votação, os deputados decidiram fazer ajustes no parecer do relator para tirar definitivamente os estados e municípios da Reforma da Previdência, bem como para limitar a elevação da Contribuição Social sobre o Lucro Líquido (CSLL), de 15% para 20%, para os bancos considerados médios e grandes. Além disso, apesar do apelo do presidente Bolsonaro para que as reivindicações dos policiais federais e rodoviários federais fossem atendidas, os membros da Comissão decidiram manter o texto original do relator, que prevê que essas classes se aposentarão aos 55 anos de idade, com 30 anos de contribuição e com 25 anos de exercício efetivo na carreira. O relatório aprovado pela Comissão Especial foi publicado no Diário da Câmara dos Deputados do dia 05/07/2019, dando início, assim, ao período mínimo de duas sessões do Plenário da Câmara para que a Reforma possa ser incluída na pauta do Plenário. O presidente da Câmara dos Deputados, deputado Rodrigo Maia (DEM-RJ), disse em seu podcast semanal que a Reforma da Previdência começará a ser analisada pelo Plenário da Câmara na terça-feira (09/07), devendo passar pelos dois turnos de votação antes do recesso do Legislativo, que se inicia no dia 18/07. Para Maia, caso a Reforma seja aprovada, esta será uma vitória do parlamento, mas não do governo, que pouco ajudou na formação da maioria e do texto final. Caso seja aprovada pelo Plenário da Câmara, a proposta seguirá para o Senado Federal. Confira abaixo as alterações aprovadas pela Comissão Especial:

  • Idade mínima

Como era na proposta do governo: idade mínima de 65 para homens com tempo de contribuição mínimo de 20 anos e de 62 anos para as mulheres com tempo de contribuição mínimo por igual período.

Como ficou no texto aprovado pela Comissão Especial: não há alterações na idade mínima para requerer a aposentadoria. A alteração fica no tempo mínimo de contribuição, que, para as mulheres, permanecerá a regra atual, ou seja, de 15 anos.

  • Regras de transição

Como era: para os trabalhadores da iniciativa privada e inscritos no Regime Geral de Previdência Social (RGPS), são ofertadas três regras de transição: uma, com base na soma do tempo de contribuição com a idade do trabalhador, que deverá ser de 96 pontos para homens e 86 para as mulheres quando a Reforma entrar em vigor; a segunda, caso o trabalhador opte pela regra que prevê o tempo mínimo de contribuição de 35 anos para os homens e 30 anos para as mulheres, devendo o trabalhador homem ter no mínimo 61 anos de idade e a mulher 56 anos de idade quando a Reforma entrar em vigor; e a terceira, para quem está a dois anos de se aposentar, devendo ser pago um pedágio de 50% sobre o tempo que falta para se aposentar.

Como ficou: As três regras são mantidas, mas a Comissão Especial incluiu uma quarta regra de transição com base no fator previdenciário, que exclui a idade mínima para o trabalhador se aposentar, mas prevê acréscimo de 100% ao tempo de contribuição. Assim, se um empregado tiver 32 anos de contribuição, mas não preencher o requisito de idade mínima, terá que contribuir para a previdência por mais quatro anos.

  • Capitalização

Como era: uma lei complementar instituiria um novo regime de Previdência Social com base no sistema de capitalização, no qual o trabalhador faria a própria poupança e receberia a sua aposentadoria com base na sua própria contribuição.

Como ficou: a possiblidade de se instituir o sistema de capitalização individual foi retirada do parecer do relator.

  • Estados e Municípios

Como era: as novas regras previdenciárias também seriam aplicadas aos servidores públicos estaduais e municipais.

Como ficou: cada estado e município disporá sobre as regras previdenciárias de seus servidores.

  • Encargos trabalhistas

Como era: a proposta previa que as contribuições previdenciárias incidiriam na folha salarial sobre as verbas de "qualquer natureza".

Como ficou: a incidência sobre as verbas de "qualquer natureza" foi retirada, tendo em vista que o fato gerador da contribuição poderia incidir sobre o valor do vale alimentação e vale transporte, entre outros.

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