Brazil: Ministro da Justiça e Segurança Pública apresenta pacote anticrime

Last Updated: 20 February 2019
Article by Filipe Magliarelli and Thaís Pinheiro

Recentemente, o Ministro da Justiça e Segurança Pública, Sérgio Moro, apresentou um pacote que prevê alterações em 14 leis de natureza penal ou administrativa, tais como o Código Penal, o Código de Processo Penal, a Lei de Execuções Penais, a Lei de Crimes Hediondos, a Lei de Drogas, o Código Eleitoral, a Lei de Lavagem de Dinheiro e a Lei de Organização Criminosa.

Apesar de considerável apoio popular, o pacote "anticrime" enfrentará dificuldades tanto para a sua aprovação, quanto para a sua aplicação. Isso porque a proposta revisita questões que são objeto de propostas anteriores, hoje esquecidas no Congresso, além de propor medidas que contrariam entendimentos já consolidados ou sumulados pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal.

Dentre as medidas que já foram alvo de projetos de lei que não cativaram o interesse do congresso, estão a criminalização de caixa dois, a alteração de prazos prescricionais e o endurecimento de penas para crimes contra a administração pública.

Há, ainda, medidas que já tiveram sua inconstitucionalidade reconhecida pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal, algumas das quais com entendimento sumulado, por esbarrarem no princípio da individualização da pena. É o caso, por exemplo, da proposta de fixação de regime inicial necessariamente fechado para condenados por determinados crimes. O Supremo Tribunal Federal também já se pronunciou contrariamente à proposta de limitação de liberdade provisória, por violar o princípio da presunção de inocência, e muito provavelmente verá com restrições a medida de limitação das saídas temporárias.

Além de revisitar questões que já foram rechaçadas pelo Supremo Tribunal Federal, há outras propostas no "projeto de lei anticrime" que merecem ainda maior reflexão e cautela, tal como o confisco alargado e a ampliação da justiça negocial.

O projeto pretende ampliar o modelo atual de confisco de bens para condenados por crimes com pena máxima superior a 6 (seis) anos. No modelo proposto, além da possibilidade de perda de bens obtidos com o provento do crime, permite-se o confisco de bens cuja licitude o acusado não pôde comprovar. Ou seja, retira-se o ônus do Estado de demonstrar a origem ilícita de bens e permite-se o confisco da diferença entre o patrimônio do acusado e os bens compatíveis com seu provento lícito.

Assim, se o acusado não conseguir comprovar a origem de seus bens (o que fica mais difícil com o passar do tempo), poderá ter todo seu patrimônio confiscado, ainda que parte tenha origem lícita. Nesse sentido, pode-se considerar que o confisco alargado viola os princípios da presunção de inocência e do direito à propriedade.

Outro ponto polêmico do projeto é a proposta de alargamento das hipóteses de justiça negocial, com o pretenso objetivo de garantir a celeridade processual e a economia de recursos públicos. No entanto, a exemplo do que ocorre nos Estados Unidos (de onde o modelo proposto foi inspirado), a implementação do plea bargain no Brasil poderá levar muitas pessoas a confessarem uma conduta delitiva que não praticaram, temerosas de enfrentar um processo criminal e de receber uma dura pena ao final.
O texto deve se tornar Projeto de Lei a ser analisado e votado pelo Congresso Nacional em breve, mas já é alvo de duras críticas. A Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil já criou um grupo, por meio da Comissão Especial de Garantia do Direito de Defesa e da Comissão Nacional de Legislação, para o estudo das medidas e acompanhará de perto as discussões no Congresso.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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