Brazil: Reação pode levar BC a rever proposta

Last Updated: 31 January 2019
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, March 2019

A consulta aberta pelo Banco Central para mudar procedimentos bancários de prevenção à lavagem de dinheiro e ao financiamento do terrorismo provocou reação dentro e fora do governo e pode levar a autoridade monetária a rever pelo menos um dos pontos polêmicos da proposta. 

A sugestão que o Banco Central colocou em consulta propõe, entre outras coisas, a eliminação do valor de R$ 10 mil como referência de piso para as operações com suspeitas de lavagem de dinheiro que devem compulsoriamente ser comunicadas ao Conselho de Controle de Atividades Financeiras (Coaf). O BC também propôs a retirada de parentes de políticos do rol de pessoas que devem ser monitoradas com mais rigor pelos bancos. Em contrapartida, incluiu deputados estaduais e vereadores nesta categoria. 

Em nota, o BC argumentou que as novas regras estão em linha com práticas internacionais. Segundo o Valor apurou, a autarquia está disposta a repensar a regra sobre o monitoramento dos parentes de políticos. Das 89 contribuições ao texto apresentadas no site do BC até o início da tarde de ontem, pelo menos 25 diziam respeito à questão dos parentes de políticos. 

A mudança foi classificada como retrocesso, segundo o presidente da Associação dos Peritos Criminais Federais (APCF), Marcos Camargo. "A possibilidade de retirar os parentes de políticos e de outras pessoas politicamente expostas da lista de contas que devem ser monitoradas é um retrocesso. Isso porque é muito frequente o uso dessas pessoas para dissimular a identidade do real beneficiário das irregularidades ou crimes", afirmou em nota. O Banco Central está aberto à possibilidade de rever a questão. 

Na Suíça, o ministro da Justiça e Segurança Pública, Sergio Moro, frisou que "não há decisão tomada" dentro do governo. "Isso é uma consulta pública", disse o ministro, em rápido contato com jornalistas brasileiros no Fórum Econômico Mundial, em Davos. Ele falou à saída de um almoço organizado pelos donos do jornal americano "Washington Post". "Têm de ser avaliadas as razões da proposta do BC e o governo ainda vai se posicionar", afirmou. Antes de ir embora, ele repetiu: "Não é uma decisão tomada." 

Antes subordinado ao Ministério da Fazenda, o Coaf agora faz parte do organograma sob comando de Moro. As alterações propostas podem diminuir a quantidade de dados sobre transações financeiras que chegam ao órgão. 

O Coaf ganhou protagonismo nos últimos meses por ter informado o Ministério Público Federal sobre transações financeiras suspeitas envolvendo deputados estaduais do Rio de Janeiro e funcionários da Assembleia Legislativa. O caso ganhou primeiro plano quando se constatou que servidores do gabinete de Flavio Bolsonaro, filho do presidente Jair Bolsonaro e eleito deputado estadual, estavam envolvidos. 

Em entrevista para a "Reuters", Moro disse que o governo federal não vai intervir na investigação sobre transações financeiras atípicas envolvendo o senador eleito Flávio Bolsonaro (PSL-RJ) e ex-assessores dele na Assembleia Legislativa do Rio de Janeiro. "Essa é uma investigação preliminar, não há nada conclusivo sobre isso e no momento o caso está nas mãos dos promotores estaduais. Então, eles estão fazendo seu trabalho de maneira normal", disse o ministro. Ele foi enfático ao garantir a não-ingerência: "o governo nunca vai interferir no trabalho dos investigadores ou no trabalho com promotores", acrescentou o ministro, na entrevista transcrita no site da versão em português da agência inglesa. 

O Banco Central não deve ceder em relação a outro ponto questionado na consulta pública, que é o fim da notificação compulsória para as operações acima de R$ 10 mil que tenham indício da prática de lavagem de dinheiro O entendimento do BC é que o fim do limite é importante para ajudar os bancos a aprimorar seus sistemas de controle para a análise de operações suspeitas de todos os valores. 

A nova regulamentação, prevista para entrar em vigor em 2020, começou a ser discutida ainda durante a gestão Temer. A norma irá estabelecer que as instituições devem monitorar as transações financeiras independentemente de valor ou das pessoas envolvidas, e reportar ao Coaf tudo o que considerarem suspeito. Para tanto, exige que os bancos passem a classificar clientes, operações, produtos, funcionários e prestadores de serviços em categorias de risco para a lavagem de dinheiro e terrorismo, e a adotar procedimentos de controle compatíveis com essa exposição - mais ou menos reforçados de acordo com cada situação. 

O entendimento é que a norma está em linha com preceitos internacionais, e também da lei de Prevenção à Lavagem de Dinheiro (9.613/98), de estipular princípios que as instituições devem atender, focados nas situações de maior risco. Com isso, a expectativa é que o Coaf passe a receber um número menor de notificações, mas com dados mais relevantes. 

"A circular não está mais branda, ao contrário", afirma  Tiago Severo, advogado especializado em regulação financeira e prevenção à lavagem de dinheiro do escritório Veirano Advogados. "Os bancos têm agora mais responsabilidade no rastreamento do cliente e na identificação das informações que interessam ao Coaf." 

Na mesma linha, um executivo que atua na área de prevenção à lavagem de dinheiro em um grande banco diz que as novas regras sugeridas pelo BC são mais rigorosas que as atuais e transferem mais responsabilidade às instituições financeiras. 

Segundo ele, as medidas vão exigir mais dos bancos, o que significa que haverá um aumento de custo para as instituições financeiras. "Para os bancos, é mais duro. Como cidadão, considero muito bom", afirma esse interlocutor. 

Um dos maiores desafios para as instituições financeiras, segundo ele, será cumprir os prazos para levar operações suspeitas ao Coaf. As instituições terão 60 dias, contados da ocorrência da transação, para informá-la ao órgão. A ideia é que o Coaf tenha acesso às informações o mais perto possível da ocorrência, o que tende a facilitar o rastreamento do dinheiro. Procurado, o Coaf disse que não comentaria a proposta do Banco Central.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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