Brazil: Integração de políticas públicas e a MP do Saneamento

Last Updated: 2 November 2018
Article by Ana Luci Grizzi and Julia Filipini Ferreira
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

Saneamento, qualidade ambiental e saúde pública são assuntos interdependentes. Captação, tratamento e fornecimento de água de qualidade; coleta, tratamento e descarte de efluentes sanitários; coleta, tratamento e destinação ambiental adequada de resíduos sólidos; todos são essenciais ao meio ambiente ecologicamente equilibrado, logo, à sadia qualidade de vida. 

É nesse contexto de interdependência e essencialidade que a gestão de nossas águas, nossos efluentes e nossos resíduos deve ser planejada e executada pelo Poder Público. No quesito gestão de águas, vale lembrar a importante correlação entre áreas protegidas pelas normas ambientais, a exemplo das áreas verdes que margeiam corpos d'água e nascentes, para assegurar qualidade e disponibilidade hídrica. 

No quesito gestão de efluentes, vale lembrar a imprescindibilidade da coleta e tratamento universais, impactando a melhora da saúde pública, com a consequente redução da demanda por serviços de saúde. No quesito gestão de resíduos, destaca-se a tão discutida destinação ambiental adequada dos resíduos (reuso, reciclagem, compostagem, recuperação, tratamento térmico etc.) e a disposição ambiental adequada (em aterros) exclusivamente dos rejeitos. 

A Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos completou 8 anos, o prazo legal para cumprimento dessa obrigação expirou há muito e continuamos com nosso sistema ultrapassado e não-universal de gerenciamento de resíduos sólidos domésticos, impactando negativamente a qualidade das águas superficiais e contaminando solo, subsolo e águas subterrâneas. Isso sem contar o desperdício de potencial fonte de geração de energia por aproveitamento térmico ou do biogás, por exemplo, ou o desperdício de minérios contidos em eletroeletrônicos usados que poderiam ser reciclados reduzindo o volume de extração. 

Em que pese a essencialidade e interdependência dessas matérias, os conflitos de competência, as lacunas jurídicas, as guerras de poder, corrupção, falta de vontade política e menosprezo por tais temas retratam a fotografia do nosso país. O resultado disso é o ciclo vicioso há muito conhecido: escassez de volume de água, falta de água de qualidade para consumo, esgotos descartados a céu aberto sem tratamento, esgotos coletados, não tratados e descartados em nossos rios, resíduos incorretamente dispostos causando contaminação e disseminando doenças, serviços públicos de saúde sobrecarregados, falta de medicamentos para a população que depende de serviços públicos, menor produtividade de nossa força de trabalho por problemas de saúde, menor a nossa produtividade e maior a desigualdade de renda.

Nesse contexto, a edição da Medida Provisória nº 844/2018 ("MP") alterando a lei de saneamento (Lei nº 11.445/2007 – "Lei de Saneamento") e a lei de criação da Agência Nacional de Águas – ANA (Lei nº 9.984/00 – "Lei da ANA") traz avanços ao formalizar como um de seus princípios fundamentais a articulação e integração das políticas públicas de saneamento, desenvolvimento urbano, proteção ambiental e promoção da saúde (nova redação do art. 3º, VI e XII da Lei de Saneamento). 

É incontestável que precisamos, com urgência, de políticas públicas integradas nessas matérias. Políticas públicas pressupõem planejamento! Só com planejamento prévio e integrado, fundamentado em visão macro de regiões, é que conseguiremos desenvolver soluções para regulá-las e gerenciá-las. 

Por isso, é muito relevante a contribuição da ANA para a articulação entre o Plano Nacional de Saneamento Básico, o Plano Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos e a Política Nacional de Recursos Hídricos (novo art. 4º-A, parágrafo 11, introduzido pela MP na Lei da ANA). 

É esse planejamento que deve fundamentar a edição de normas de referência nacional, nova competência da ANA atribuída pela MP, para redução progressiva de perda de água, definição dos padrões de qualidade e eficiência nos serviços de saneamento, regulação tarifária visando uso racional do recurso natural, padronização dos instrumentos negociais de prestação de serviços de saneamento contemplando metas de qualidade, eficiência e ampliação de cobertura (novo artigo 4-A, parágrafo 1º, incluído pela MP na Lei da ANA). 

A edição das normas de referência nacional estimulando a cooperação entre os entes federativos também atribuirá à ANA papel muito relevante na harmonização da regulação do setor de saneamento, propiciando a tão almejada segurança jurídica (novo artigo 4-A, parágrafo 6º, incluído na Lei da ANA). Logo, esse setor tão carente de gestão adequada se tornará mais atraente para receber investimentos. 

Combinando as variáveis ambientais com saneamento no conceito de integração com planejamento, temos novos princípios basilares para esses serviços públicos: o combate às perdas de água, o estímulo à racionalização do consumo e à eficiência energética, o reuso de efluentes sanitários e aproveitamento de águas pluviais (novo artigo 3º, inciso XIII, da Lei de Saneamento, introduzido pela MP) 

Seguindo a linha de integração, neste caso entre os entes federativos, vale destacar que em situação crítica de escassez ou contaminação de recursos hídricos e independentemente da dominialidade do corpo hídrico, a ANA passa a ter competência para recomendar a restrição ou a interrupção de seu uso e a prioridade para consumo humano e dessedentação de animais (novo parágrafo único do artigo 46 da Lei de Saneamento, introduzido pela MP). 

Nos rios de domínio da União, em situações críticas de escassez quantitativa ou qualitativa de recursos hídricos que impactem usos múltiplos, a ANA passa a ter competência para declarar tal situação e estabelecer e fiscalizar o cumprimento de normas sobre uso para assegurar os usos múltiplos (novos incisos XXIII e XXIV do art. 4º da Lei da ANA, introduzidos pela MP). 

Planejamento, integração e harmonização das políticas públicas ambientais, de saneamento básico, de desenvolvimento urbano e de saúde pública beneficiam absolutamente a todos no nosso país. Confiemos que esses novos normativos se tornem eficazes, em prol do desenvolvimento sustentável e da sadia qualidade de vida.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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