Brazil: Editada Medida Provisória que dispõe sobre endowments

Mercado de Capitais 

No dia 10 de setembro, foram editadas duas medidas provisórias, MP nº 850/2018 e MP nº 851/2018, que tratam respectivamente sobre a instituição da Agência Brasileira de Museus (ABRAM) e sobre endowments. As medidas decorrem da atenção pública aos cuidados com museus em razão do incêndio do Museu Nacional na Quinta da Boa Vista, Rio de Janeiro, voltando os olhares aos mecanismos de proteção e financiamento de centros culturais.

A MP nº 851/2018 é a primeira no país a tratar diretamente sobre a figura do endowment, regulando a criação de fundos patrimoniais para fomento de instituições e causas de interesse público e autorizando a administração pública a firmar instrumentos de parceria e termos de execução com organizações gestoras de fundos patrimoniais. Dispõe sobre a constituição de fundos patrimoniais para arrecadação, gestão e destinação de doações de pessoas físicas e jurídicas privadas para causas de interesse público, tais como educação, ciência, tecnologia, pesquisa, inovação, cultura, saúde, meio ambiente, assistência social e desporto.

Foi editada como parte do arcabouço normativo necessário ao cumprimento do art. 11, § 1º, VII, da MP nº 850/2018, que dispõe que o contrato de gestão da ABRAM com o Poder Executivo conterá o "compromisso de instituição de fundo patrimonial privado, com o objetivo de arrecadar, gerir, destinar doações de pessoas físicas e jurídicas privadas" para a reconstrução e modernização do Museu Nacional, bem como para a restauração e recomposição do acervo (art. 11, § 1º, VII, da MP nº 850).

Apesar da relação direta com a Medida Provisória dos Museus por se tratar de uma resposta do Governo à ausência de recursos para manutenção de bens e projetos culturais no Brasil, a MP dos Endowments extrapola a atenção com instituições de arte e reconhece a relevância dos fundos patrimoniais como instrumentos de financiamento de instituições públicas e Organizações da Sociedade Civil. Prevê a possibilidade de criação de fundações para gestão de fundos patrimoniais (art. 2º, II), atendidas as diretrizes de transparência e controle das organizações gestoras dos endowments funds.

Segmentos do terceiro setor e do setor de negócios de impacto social (o chamado setor 2,5) divergem sobre os impactos e aspectos positivos e negativos da norma. Entre outros pontos polêmicos da MP estão: (i) a vedação de que as fundações de apoio, constituídas na forma da Lei nº 8.958/1994, com redação dada pelas Leis nºs 12.863/2013 e 12.349/2010, assumam o papel de organização gestora de fundos ou de instituição apoiada; (ii) a ausência de previsão quanto à possibilidade de coexistência de outros modelos de fundos patrimoniais, aos quais inaplicáveis as disposições da Medida Provisória; (iii) inexistência de disposição que estabeleça a não incidência de tributos sobre os rendimentos de aplicações financeiras de fundos patrimoniais.

A medida provisória vigerá até 9 de novembro de 2018 (conforme art. 62 da Constituição Federal). Sua conversão em lei será apreciada por comissão mista do Senado Federal e da Câmara dos Deputados, designada em 13 de setembro e ainda pendente de instalação, para posterior votação por ambas as Casas Legislativas.

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