Brazil: Hacer negocios en Brasil: lo que necesita saber

Last Updated: 10 October 2018
Article by TMF Group

Las reglas de negocios en Brasil son complejas y requieren que todo aquel que quiera hacer negocios allí tenga una comprensión clara de las reglas y regulaciones locales.

La versión original de este artículo está publicada en GlobalTradeMagazine.com 

La propuesta de adquisición de Boeing Co. de $3.8 mil millones de la compañía comercial de aviones Embraer SA es una prueba para el futuro económico de Brasil.

El gobierno de Brasil lanzó iniciativas para alcanzar la sustentabilidad fiscal y liberar una de las economías de mercados emergentes más cerradas. Los esfuerzos reforzaron la competitividad del país y brindaron un mejor ambiente para el desarrollo del sector privado. Esto ha generado un enorme interés de las compañías que hace tiempo buscan expandirse hacia la economía más grande de Latinoamérica y acceder a sus más de 200 millones de consumidores.

No obstante, el acuerdo de Boeing para una de las compañías más exitosas de Brasil, un brillante ejemplo de privatización, ha generado oposición de cara a las elecciones presidenciales de octubre. Los candidatos de izquierda han prometido dar vuelta el acuerdo y los sindicatos piden al gobierno que vete la transacción. 

La intervención del gobierno para poner fin o restructurar el acuerdo dañará aún más la reputación de negocios de Brasil, que ya tambalea por los escándalos públicos de corrupción, un gran déficit de presupuesto y un crecimiento económico débil. Eso puede dificultar algunas de las reformas que han implementado en años recientes para alentar el desarrollo de negocios y la inversión extranjera.

Aun así, Brasil se mantiene como el destino principal para las compañías que buscan invertir en Sudamérica, y es el hogar de casi la mitad de la población y riqueza de la región. Los Estados Unidos son uno de los mayores exportadores a Brasil, y uno de las fuentes principales de inversión directa en el país.

Burocracia

Sin embargo, hacer negocios en Brasil requiere de un conocimiento profundo de la burocracia local, que está entre los países más complejos del mundo. De hecho, Brasil clasifica en la posición 125 de 190 países en el último reporte del Banco Mundial que evalúa la facilidad para hacer negocios a nivel global. La clasificación se basa en 10 temas que incluyen el comercio más allá de las fronteras, la propiedad registrada, el acceso al crédito, el pago de impuestos y la ejecución de contratos.

La pobre clasificación es, en gran medida, debido a la historia de Brasil de proteger los negocios y empleados locales, que creó muchas leyes y regulaciones. El tiempo medio que lleva registrar una compañía en San Pablo, la ciudad más grande del país, es de 101.5 días, más de tres veces la media para la región Latinoamericana.

Hacer negocios no solo requiere abrir una entidad legal local, sino también registrarla ante las autoridades públicas relevantes. El laberinto de carga administrativa se resalta en este reporte, que clasifica a Brasil como la séptima jurisdicción más compleja de 84 países para cumplir con regulaciones de negocios.

El ambiente tributario de Brasil es una de las principales razones detrás de su complejidad. Más de 90 impuestos, cargas y contribuciones sociales son impuestos por varias autoridades federales, estatales y municipales.

Reformas

El gobierno brasilero se puso en marcha para simplificar el reporte de empleo e información tributaria para empleadores privados a través de un nuevo sistema digital de contabilidad llamado eSocial. Los empleadores deben empezar a utilizar el sistema este año, y aun se delibera si el sistema hará que el reporte sea más eficiente.

El país también ha implementado varias reformas durante los últimos tres años que han facilitado el hecho de hacer negocios, y que incluyen la creación de un portal en línea para registrar las licencias corporativas, y la sanción de una nueva ley que alienta a las partes a resolver disputas a través de una mediación en lugar de acudir a los tribunales.

Brasil está mejorando sus sistemas de información electrónicos para estimular el comercio. El sistema para monitorear las importaciones y facilitar los permisos aduaneros redujo el papeleo y facilitó el cumplimiento fronterizo.

Uno de los mayores desafíos para los inversores interesados en Brasil han sido sus amplias leyes laborales, que son conocidas por su falta de flexibilidad y alta carga impositiva. Las nuevas leyes permiten a las compañías contratar empleados autónomos, facilitando la desvinculación de empleados y terminando con las contribuciones obligatorias a los sindicatos. Se espera que las reformas laborales reduzcan costos para los empleados y aumenten la productividad.

El país también trató de abordar su reputación de corrupción. Una investigación criminal sobre sobornos y corrupción pública, conocida como la Operación Car Wash, generó cargos contra más de 200 personas y 12 años de prisión para el ex presidente Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva.

El futuro

Mientras Brasil comienza a salir de su recesión más profunda en décadas, las compañías y los consumidores han renovado su optimismo sobre el futuro. General Motors, de hecho, está invirtiendo $1.4 mil millones en tres plantas en Brasil, donde planea desarrollar nuevos autos el próximo año. Se espera que las ventas de automóviles en el país alcancen los 2.9 millones de unidades en 2019, más que los 2.05 millones de 2016.

GM, Boeing y otras compañías se mueven rápido, a pesar de la incertidumbre política de cara a las elecciones de octubre. Para tener éxito en Brasil, las compañías deben hacer su tarea y navegar las complejidades en una economía de mercado emergente. Un gran primer paso para obtener una comprensión de un país como Brasil es acceder a un numero de recursos gratuitos, con buena reputación, como esta librería de perfiles de países, la cual está disponible para que las compañías tomen sus primeros pasos para una expansión exitosa y bien instruida.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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