Brazil: Adesão do Brasil à OCDE: impactos ambientais positivos no mercado de resíduos

Last Updated: 26 September 2018
Article by Ana Luci Grizzi and Daniela Simões Diniz
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

Brasil caminha na direção para sanar pendências normativas ambientais e fomentar o mercado internacional de resíduos

Em 30 de maio de 2017, o Brasil solicitou sua adesão à Organização para a Cooperação e o Desenvolvimento Econômico – OCDE como país membro. O Brasil é parceiro da OCDE desde 1994, tornando-se key partner em 2007.

São muitas as discussões entre políticos e economistas sobre as vantagens e desvantagens de o Brasil ser membro da OCDE, mas há também importante aspecto legal ambiental nessa questão.

A OCDE possui 245 instrumentos legais vigentes1, sendo que (i) a compatibilidade de tais instrumentos com a legislação doméstica é um dos requisitos de avaliação de adesão do país e (ii) dentre eles, as decisões – atualmente são 25 vigentes – devem ser obrigatoriamente implementadas, tendo em vista seu caráter vinculante aos membros aderentes2.

Entre esses 245 instrumentos, 71 deles tratam de temas ambientais variados. O Brasil formalmente já aderiu a 54 instrumentos, dos quais apenas 2 são ambientais3.

Como parte dos esforços para tornar-se membro, o Brasil notificou a OCDE sobre a adesão a novos instrumentos e informou estar em processo de revisão final de outros instrumentos, aos quais também pretende aderir em breve4.

A maior parte dos instrumentos legais sobre temas ambientais da OCDE não têm correspondência na legislação doméstica ou são regulados de forma superficial, como é o caso do mercado internacional de resíduos, tema extremamente relevante, mas ainda controverso no Brasil.

A norma que rege a movimentação internacional (transfronteiriça) de resíduos perigosos, permitindo a existência desse mercado, é a Convenção da Basileia. Apesar de o Brasil tê-la ratificado, há uma questão importante sobre classificação de periculosidade de determinados tipos de resíduos, cuja origem remonta à falta de atualização de nossa legislação doméstica para acompanhar o novo contexto de consumo, por exemplo, o volume crescente de resíduos eletroeletrônicos.

Os resíduos que podem ou não estar expressamente enquadrados na Convenção da Basileia, ou seja, podem ser classificados como perigosos ou não-perigosos, a exemplo dos resíduos eletroeletrônicos, enfrentam lacuna normativa. Logo, a definição de sua periculosidade fica sujeita à interpretação das normas domésticas (as quais, por exemplo, se destinam a classificar resíduos industriais) pelo Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis – IBAMA, o que pode resultar em insegurança jurídica para players do mercado de resíduos.

A relevância da discussão é a seguinte: a exportação de resíduos classificados como não-perigosos não está sujeita a autorização do IBAMA nem às demais normas específicas para transporte de resíduo perigoso; já os classificados como perigosos demandam a obtenção prévia de autorização do IBAMA, por meio de procedimento extenso (na prática, a autorização leva em torno de 6 meses para ser expedida), além de sujeitarem-se a extenso rol de normas aplicáveis ao transporte de resíduo perigoso, as quais variam de acordo com o modal de transporte.

A violação de tais normas com a exportação de resíduos perigosos sem autorização do IBAMA sujeita o infrator a multa de R$ 500,00 a R$ 2.000.000,00 e pode ser tipificada como crime ambiental, com pena de 1 a 4 anos de reclusão.
Trazendo a discussão para caso prático, os resíduos eletroeletrônicos da chamada 'linha verde' (por exemplo, partes, peças e componentes eletroeletrônicos de laptops, desktops, celulares) são essencialmente afetados ao terem sua classificação de periculosidade elaborada com base em norma doméstica (NBR 10.004 da ABNT) à luz do entendimento do IBAMA.

Há processos administrativos em andamento em que, mesmo com laudos comprovando a não-periculosidade de resíduos eletroeletrônicos nos termos da norma doméstica, o IBAMA mantém a interpretação de que as partes e peças de eletroeletrônico seriam perigosas e, portanto, sujeitas ao processo de autorização para exportação, às normas de transporte de resíduos perigosos e ao trâmite previsto na Convenção da Basileia.

Na era do desenvolvimento tecnológico, em que os produtos eletroeletrônicos se tornam rapidamente obsoletos, a geração desses resíduos é maior a cada dia e o seu reaproveitamento de forma sustentável deveria ser prioridade. A tecnologia com maior reaproveitamento de tais resíduos, chamada urban mining (recuperação dos metais preciosos) ainda não está disponível no Brasil. Portanto, ou exportamos ou daremos a 'destinação ambiental adequada' viável em território brasileiro, qual seja, envio para aterro.

Apesar da insegurança jurídica e do posicionamento do IBAMA até o momento, são exportados em torno de 5.500 toneladas de resíduos eletroeletrônicos da linha verde por ano, movimentando mercado com valor aproximado de U$40 milhões e atendendo integralmente a Política Nacional de Resíduos – reaproveitamos metais, reduzimos resíduos e ainda reduzimos a necessidade de extração mineral.

Aqui vale retornarmos ao papel da OCDE na fomentação do mercado de resíduos internacional, beneficiando diretamente o meio ambiente: resíduos eletroeletrônicos (por exemplo, placas de circuito, componentes eletroeletrônicos, fios) estão expressamente incluídos no Sistema de Controle para reciclagem de resíduos instituído pela Decisão de Conselho C(2001)107/FINAL [C(2004)20; C(2005)141; e C(2008)156]: Controle de Movimentos Transfronteiriços de Resíduos Destinados a Operações de Reciclagem ("Decisão OCDE")5.

A Decisão OCDE dispõe que resíduos eletroeletrônicos são não-perigosos quando destinados para reciclagem, apresentando baixo risco à saúde humana e ao meio ambiente6. Portanto, entre países membros da OCDE, resíduos eletroeletrônicos são exportados apenas de acordo com os trâmites comuns a exportações, não incidindo controles ambientais específicos.

Felizmente, temos excelente indicativo de que o Brasil caminha na direção certa para sanar as pendências normativas ambientais e fomentar o mercado internacional de resíduos, reforçando o cumprimento da Política Nacional de Resíduos Sólidos. Em setembro de 2017, o Ministério das Relações Exteriores divulgou a adesão do Brasil à Decisão OECD7.

Resta saber como o IBAMA e os órgãos ambientais estaduais irão harmonizar as diretrizes de gerenciamento de resíduos atual (especialmente de partes, peças e componentes avulsos, íntegros ou não, de eletroeletrônicos) com a Decisão OECD. Isso porque não será viável, por exemplo, determinar que resíduos eletroeletrônicos são perigosos para gerenciamento no país, mas classificá-los como não-perigosos para exportação destinada a reciclagem.

Visando o tão almejado desenvolvimento sustentável, preconizado por nossa Constituição Federal, esperamos que essa harmonização ocorra de forma célere e simplificada.

Footnotes

https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/ 
https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/general-information 
https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/adherences 
http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/pt-BR/notas-a-imprensa/17401-adesao-do-brasil-a-novos-instrumentos-da-ocde 
http://www.oecd.org/env/waste/theoecdcontrolsystemforwasterecovery.htm 
6 Anexo 3, part II, CG 020 – https://legalinstruments.oecd.org/en/instruments/OECD-LEGAL-0266 
http://www.itamaraty.gov.br/pt-BR/notas-a-imprensa/17401-adesao-do-brasil-a-novos-instrumentos-da-ocde 

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