Brazil: Impasse Na Legislação Deve Acabar Na Justiça

Last Updated: 7 August 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, July 2018

O setor de telecomunicações já se prepara para uma nova onda de disputas judiciais. Na legislação atual, as operadoras de telefonia fixa trabalham no regime de concessão. Isso significa que todos os bens utilizados por elas para prestar o serviço —como prédios, centrais telefônicas e redes de cobre — precisam ser devolvidos à União ao fim do contrato. Empresas e Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações (Anatel), porém, não conseguem chegar a um acordo sobre o cálculo do valor dos bens.

As operadoras reivindicam uma mudança na Lei Geral de Telecomunicações, que permitiria que os bens passassem a ser considerados das próprias empresas. A receita para garantir essa troca seria mudar o regime de atuação. A telefonia fixa passaria a operar como autorização, nos mesmos moldes da legislação para telefonia celular e banda larga. O projeto para alterar o modelo, porém, está há dois anos parado no Congresso. A discussão na telefonia fixa envolve empresas de peso no setor, como Oi e Telefônica, entre outras. 

Mesmo que conseguissem destravar o projeto no Congresso, as empresas avaliam que haverá uma disputa nesta divisão de bens com a União para definir o que é público e o que é privado. As companhias dizem que não há como separar qual parte da rede ou do prédio é responsável pelo fornecimento da telefonia fixa e qual é destinada a outros serviços, como celular e internet. Nos últimos anos, as teles vêm usando infraestrutura única para fornecer todos os serviços. 

REGRAS DEFASADAS 

O debate vai além da questão setorial. Na visão das empresas, ao incorporar ao patrimônio em caráter permanente prédios e redes, o setor ganharia fôlego para investir e ampliar a presença em banda larga fixa, mercado em que as gigantes do setor começam a perder participação. Se a lei não for alterada, as empresas de telefonia fixa devem devolver os bens à União em 2025, quando se encerram os contratos de concessão. 

Fabio Kujawski, sócio do escritório Mattos Filho, diz que a atualização da lei é necessária para permitir novos investimentos. Com a mudança, empresas como Oi e Telefônica deixariam de ser obrigadas a investir em telefonia fixa e em orelhões e passariam a ter normas para ampliar a banda larga fixa no Brasil. O patamar desse investimento será baseado no valor dos bens das teles que estão em discussão com a Anatel. 

— O Brasil é um dos únicos países a ter concessão (ao lado de Turquia e Peru). Não há motivo para obrigar o investimento em rede fixa e orelhão se as pessoas querem internet. O governo precisa ainda criar uma política pública. Mas, para isso, é preciso resolver a questão dos bens das teles — destaca o advogado. 

Eduardo Levy, diretor-executivo da Telebrasil, que reúne as empresas do setor, acredita que as mudanças vão trazer uma maior segurança jurídica, já que haverá um horizonte maior para as companhias planejarem seus investimentos: 

—O governo precisa decidir qual futuro quer para o país. O Brasil precisa se tornar digital e aumentar sua competitividade. 

Eurico Teles, presidente da Oi, diz que só a mudança na lei vai democratizar o uso da internet no país: 

— É preciso atualizar a regulamentação, que hoje não reflete a nova realidade do mercado. Isso é fundamental para reduzir as barreiras para os investimentos das empresas privadas. As telecomunicações são um dos principais pilares do desenvolvimento da economia de um país, e o Brasil não pode prescindir disso. 

Eduardo Navarro, presidente da Telefônica, afirma que a regulação não evoluiu. Ele lembra que metade dos 800 mil telefones públicos não é usada: 

—Fazemos esse tipo de investimento porque é obrigatório. Mas, se você perguntar a qualquer um qual é o serviço essencial, todos vão falar que é a internet. A privatização foi exitosa, mas o modelo ficou velho. Agora é o momento de prever os próximos 20 anos. 

Segundo o presidente da Anatel, Juarez Quadros, o valor patrimonial dos bens que precisam ser devolvidos à União supera R$ 100 bilhões, embora o valor de mercado deles ainda seja uma incógnita. Para ele, o fato de as empresas não terem separado os recursos para prestação de serviços de telefonia fixa e celular não deveria ter ocorrido: 

—Com isso, o bem do regime privado sofre um contágio e passa a ser considerado reversível também. Hoje, o que as pessoas querem são dados, e dados são um serviço prestado em regime privado (de autorização). 

Para o secretário de Telecomunicações do Ministério das Comunicações, André Borges, a concessão de telefonia fixa perdeu valor, e a discussão sobre os bens se tornou uma "dor de cabeça": 

— Esse patrimônio é uma encrenca, uma dor de cabeça para o governo. Imagine que eu tenha que pagar R$ 17 bilhões para adquirir esses bens? Eles são absolutamente necessários à prestação do serviço. É a rede. Mas a rede de telefonia fixa é antiga. Por que diabos vou querer uma fortuna numa rede antiga? 

RISCO PARA INVESTIMENTO 

Borges acredita que o valor de redes de cobre, prédios e centrais telefônicas é "infinitamente menor" do que o que está nos livros contábeis das empresas. Isso porque, diz ele, são equipamentos velhos que perderam valor. 

— A concessão da telefonia fixa perdeu totalmente o seu valor. A concessão representa um problema, porque ela congrega conjunto de bens razoavelmente defasados tecnologicamente. Eles têm um valor histórico, contábil, mas não têm valor para o futuro e para novos negócios — afirma Borges. 

Paulo Vicente, professor de governança da Fundação Dom Cabral, acredita que a insegurança jurídica interfere nos investimentos: 

— Tudo indica que o valor vai ser contestado judicialmente. A Anatel está enfraquecida. E a empresa começa a olhar o retorno do investimento. Se demorar três ou quatro anos não haverá mais interesse em investir. Os grandes investimentos podem parar. 

Robson Barreto, sócio do escritório Veirano, aponta como uma das consequências a redução na atração de investidores para o país. 

— Quem vai investir no país com regras de cobertura para um serviço que ninguém usa mais? A internet das coisas já deveria ter agenda regulatória. É preciso uma visão de modernidade — afirma Barreto.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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