Brazil: Consolidação Da Reforma

Last Updated: 16 July 2018
Article by Veirano E Advogados Associados
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

O Supremo Tribunal Federal confirmou, por 6 votos a 3, a legalidade do fim da cobrança obrigatória do imposto sindical, um dos pilares da reforma trabalhista adotada em 2017. Os ministros do STF consideraram que a norma é constitucional, ao julgar 19 ações que contestavam esse ponto. Segundo dados do Ministério do Trabalho, os sindicatos arrecadaram R$ 1,395 bilhão com a cobrança do imposto no ano passado, enquanto as entidades patronais receberam R$ 545 milhões. As principais centrais sindicais lamentaram a decisão do STF. Já a Confederação Nacional da Indústria elogiou o aumento da segurança jurídica. O Supremo Tribunal Federal (STF) deu ontem um passo importante para a consolidação da nova legislação trabalhista ao bater o martelo sobre um dos pontos mais polêmicos da reforma: o fim do imposto sindical obrigatório (correspondente a um dia de serviço e descontado de todos os trabalhadores todo ano independentemente de serem sindicalizados ou não). Por seis votos a três, a Corte decidiu manter o fim da cobrança compulsória. De acordo com a reforma, em vigor desde novembro, o pagamento é facultativo. A norma vale também para as empresas, que eram obrigadas a recolher para seus respectivos sindicatos patronais.

Os ministros consideraram que a norma não desrespeita a Constituição ao julgar 19 ações que questionavam o fim da obrigatoriedade da contribuição. O relator, Edson Fachin, foi voto vencido, acompanhado de Rosa Weber e Dias Toffoli. Votaram contra a exigência da contribuição os ministros Luiz Fux, Alexandre de Moraes, Luís Roberto Barroso, Gilmar Mendes, Marco Aurélio de Mello e Cármen Lúcia, presidente do tribunal. Ricardo Lewandowski e Celso de Mello não estavam presentes.

Alexandre de Moraes defendeu que não há inconstitucionalidade. Para ele, embora a cobrança tenha se mantido por cerca de 29 anos, o Congresso Nacional "mudou suas caraterísticas privilegiando a liberdade associativa":

— Se o empregado tem a opção de se filiar ao sindicato, ele também tem a opção de não recolher essa contribuição.

Moraes disse que apenas dois de cada dez trabalhadores se sindicalizam, mostrando um "déficit de representatividade que decorre talvez das facilidades possibilitadas aos sindicatos por uma contribuição sindical compulsória". Segundo ele, a Constituição permite a contribuição, mas não como obrigatória.

SINDICATOS VÃO RECORRER AO CONGRESSO

Em seu voto, o ministro Luís Roberto Barroso criticou a quantidade de sindicatos e afirmou que não prestam um bom serviço. Para o ministro, o modelo atual não se presta aos fins a que se destina:

— É modelo que não estimula a representatividade, não estimula os serviços de qualidade. E temos milhares de sindicatos como temos dezenas de partidos, porque o modelo de sindicalismo virou um business privado, um mercado privado. O sistema é bom para sindicalistas, não é bom para os trabalhadores.

Rosa Weber, que tem formação e experiência na área trabalhista, disse que a contribuição é importante para fortalecer os sindicatos em tempos de mudanças na legislação, como o "negociado sobre o legisdores Ela questionou se é adequado retirar a forma mais segura de renda das entidades sindicais nesse momento.

Segundo dados do Ministério do Trabalho, as entidades laborais receberam, em 2017, R$ 1,395 bilhão. Os sindicatos dos empregadores receberam R$ 545,399 milhões no mesmo ano.

Em nota, a Força Sindical disse que a decisão do Supremo frustrou a expectativa dos sindicatos. A entidade informou que vai atuar para aprovar no Congresso uma lei que crie uma forma de financiamento. "Perdemos uma batalha mas não perdemos a luta, uma vez que as leis vigentes em nosso país são estabelecidas no Congresso Nacional", diz em nota.

A União Geral dos Trabalhadores (UGT) disse que não se surpreendeu com a decisão. Em nota, informou que o movimento sindical precisa se reestruturar para ampliar a filiação e representatividade.

O deputado Rogério Marinho (PSDBRN), que foi o relator da reforma, disse, em nota, que a medida é o "princípio da moralização do sindicalismo brasileiro".

A Confederação Nacional da Indústria (CNI) afirmou, em nota, que o fim da obrigatoriedade contribui para modernizar as relações entre sindicatos, trabalhadores e empresas. Segundo a entidade, a decisão dará mais segurança jurídica.

Na avaliação de advogados e juízes do Trabalho, a tendência é que os sindicatos de baixa representatividade e mal geridos acabem fechando. Há cerca de 12 mil sindicatos de trabalhadores e 5 mil patronais. Antonio Carlos Aguiar, da Peixoto & Cury Advogados, diz que o fim do imposto é consequência de crise de representatividade dos sindicatos. Para ele, o trabalhador não se oporia ao pagamento caso se sentisse, de fato, representado. E faria de forma voluntária, não compulsória:

— O pecado dos sindicatos foi não compreender as demandas dos trabalhadores. Se um sindicato acabar, os trabalhadores podem fundar um novo ou buscar outro que os represente.

No caso de um vácuo de representação — devido ao fim de algum sindicato por questões financeiras —, Luiz Antonio dos Santos Júnior, sócio do Veirano Advogados, lembra que os trabalhadores podem recorrer à federação ou à confederação da categoria. Se as entidades se recusarem a atendê-los, diz, os trabalhadores podem denunciá-las ao Ministério Público do Trabalho (MPT), para que a Procuradoria busque uma negociação entre trabalhalado". e empresas. Ele avalia que o Congresso poderia ter proposto um período de transição para a extinção do imposto:

— A união de sindicatos de mais de uma categoria ou de diferentes unidades da federação pode ser um caminho.

DECISÃO MUITO ABRANGENTE, DIZ JUÍZA

A juíza Claudia Pisco, diretora da Amatra-1 (que reúne magistrados da Justiça do Trabalho do Rio), diz que respeita a decisão do STF, mas que discorda da maioria dos ministros. Ela afirma que o sistema está assentado num tripé: representatividade de todos os trabalhadores, sindicalizados ou não, contribuição obrigatória e unicidade sindical: só um sindicato pode representar uma categoria na mesma cidade. E que, se uma das pernas é mexida, as outras terão de ser revistas também:

— Foi uma decisão com desdobramentos muito abrangentes num momento em que a discussão sobre a reforma do trabalho ainda não está madura.

Para ela, a reforma aumenta o poder do sindicato, ao determinar que a negociação vale mais que a lei, ao mesmo tempo em que o fragiliza financeiramente. O que, para a juíza, aumenta a chance de os sindicatos terem posição favorável aos patrões.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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