Brazil: Blockchain: a evolução da revolução digital

Last Updated: 12 April 2018
Article by Vitor Castro
Most Read Contributor in Brazil, October 2018

O uso de tecnologia é um caminho sem volta para a sociedade. A vida moderna torna indispensável o uso do fogo, da água, da eletricidade e, ultimamente, das inovações tecnológicas. Para muitos, viver sem acesso a um smartphone pode parecer tão degradante quanto não ter uma geladeira em casa. Pode parecer exagerado? Talvez. Mas a realidade permite admitir que estamos cada vez mais conectados e dependentes das inovações tecnológicas. 

Quando os computadores foram introduzidos, as pessoas acreditavam que estávamos diante do futuro. A revolução digital estava posta. A incerteza que cercava as pessoas naquela época foi superada quando se percebeu que o uso de computadores melhoraria a qualidade de vida das pessoas e mudaria a dinâmica das relações comerciais. Mais recentemente, o uso da tecnologia modificou também a forma como as pessoas se relacionam. Receber hoje um telegrama é quase inimaginável. 

Assim como hoje é difícil acreditar na compra de papéis na bolsa de valores sem o uso de uma corretora, ou na assinatura de uma escritura pública de compra e venda longe dos carimbos de registro de um tabelião. Tais atividades podem estar se tornando obsoletas. Se o computador trouxe a revolução digital, o uso de blockchain é a evolução desse processo. Mas o que é, afinal, o blockchain? 

O uso de termos técnicos pode assustar. Mas não há necessidade de bloqueio ante o desconhecido. Blockchain, de forma muito sucinta, é uma base de dados segura, que funciona a partir da colaboração das partes envolvidas em uma transação. Cada usuário vai criando um bloco de informações criptografadas (ou seja, com um código de segurança), que não pode ser modificado, e fica registrado em um livro de registro virtual. Os usuários podem ir se conectando diretamente a partir desses blocos, sem intermediários, formando a cadeia que conhecemos como blockchain. 

A forma mais difundida de uso do blockchain ainda é a realização de transações comerciais por meio de criptomoedas, como o bitcoin (que nada mais é do que uma moeda virtual criada por blockchain). Mas há muito mais do que isso. 

Há basicamente três usos para blockchain. Um deles é o armazenamento de informações (que, como mencionado, ficam gravadas na rede mundial e não podem ser alteradas, embora somente sejam acessadas por meio de autorização do usuário). Um outro uso é para a transferência virtual de bens; aqui se enquadra a realização de compra e venda de bitcoins, por exemplo. E um terceiro uso, ainda se desenvolvendo, é por meio dos chamados smart contracts, que são programas de computadores que desenvolvem contratos com obrigações e deveres que podem ser garantidos e executados diretamente pelas partes envolvidas ao acessarem o blockchain. 

Segundo a Deloitte, já foram investidos mais de US$ 1,4 bilhão para o desenvolvimento de tecnologias associadas ao blockchain. Não há como duvidar do interesse na realização de negócios por meio de plataformas que conectam diretamente os usuários, pois isso pode significar eficiência na redução de custos e confiança entre as partes envolvidas. 

Considerando que as informações são todas gravadas e não podem ser alteradas, o uso de blockchain pode também auxiliar a evitar atos de corrupção – uma das grandes preocupações dos brasileiros, atualmente – pois todos os dados relacionados a uma transação com blockchain ficam registrados. Assim, se alguém tentar auferir vantagem econômica por meio de criptomoedas em troca de favores eleitoreiros, por exemplo, teremos como rastrear a origem da negociação e quem recebeu e transferiu os valores. Obviamente, esse tipo de segurança poderá dar mais confiança a investidores interessados no país. 

Além disso, o uso de smart contracts pode dar maior segurança jurídica para a execução de contratos firmados por meio de blockchain, reduzindo os custos relacionados a longas disputas judiciais, que se revelam custosas e, às vezes, com resultados surpreendentes. 

Ainda há, obviamente, desafios que não podem ser esquecidos. A regulação do uso de blockchain é um deles. E a privacidade de dados registrados nos blocos também é matéria que precisa ser debatida. Contudo, enfrentar eventuais desafios demanda maior debate e conhecimento técnico e prático, sob pena de se inviabilizar o uso da tecnologia. 

A utilização de novos modelos de negócios por meio de blockchain pode até parecer ficção científica para alguns. Mas é a realidade batendo às nossas portas. Temos que aproveitar o momento para melhor entender como podemos usar essa tecnologia para avançar em transações comerciais mais seguras e garantir maior transparência e confiabilidade nos registros de dados. Quem sabe daqui há alguns anos usar o blockchain pode parecer tão natural quanto usar o controle remoto da sua televisão.

The content of this article is intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter. Specialist advice should be sought about your specific circumstances.

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